Bernard Herrmann in 1970
June 29, 1911
New York City, New York, U.S.
December 24, 1975 (aged 64)|
North Hollywood, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Beth David Cemetery, Elmont, New York|
Lucille Fletcher (m. 1939; div. 1948)|
Lucy Anderson (m. 1949; div. 1964)
Norma Shepherd (m. 1967)
|Children||With Lucille Fletcher: 2 daughters Dorothy (born 1941) and Wendy (born 1945)|
1941 Academy Award for|
Music Score of a Dramatic Picture, The Devil and Daniel Webster a.k.a. All That Money Can Buy
1976 BAFTA Award for
Best Film Music, Taxi Driver
Bernard Herrmann (born Max Herman; June 29, 1911 – December 24, 1975) was an American composer best known for his work in composing for motion pictures. As a conductor, he championed the music of lesser-known composers.
An Academy Award-winner (for The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1941; later renamed All That Money Can Buy), Herrmann is particularly known for his collaborations with director Alfred Hitchcock, most famously Psycho, North by Northwest, The Man Who Knew Too Much, and Vertigo. He also composed scores for many other movies, including Citizen Kane, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Cape Fear, and Taxi Driver. He worked extensively in radio drama (composing for Orson Welles), composed the scores for several fantasy films by Ray Harryhausen, and many TV programs, including Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone and Have Gun–Will Travel.<ref name="FOOTNOTESmith2002">Smith 2002.</ref><ref>Littlefield, Richard (2003). "Reviews: Steven C. Smith. A Heart at Fire’s Center: The Life and Music of Bernard Herrmann Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002. With a new preface". The Journal of Film Music. The International Film Music Society, Inc. 1 (2/3): 273–281. ISSN 1087-7142. [xiv], 415 p. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".. $18.95 Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991. [x], 415 p. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".. $48.00. Retrieved 17 March 2015.</ref>
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Collaboration with Orson Welles
- 3 Collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock
- 4 Later life and death
- 5 Other works
- 6 Compositional style and philosophy
- 7 Legacy and recording
- 8 Accolades
- 9 In popular culture
- 10 Film scores
- 11 Radio scores
- 12 Stage works
- 13 Concert works
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
Early life and career
Herrmann, the son of a Jewish middle-class family of Russian origin, was born in New York City as Max Herman.<ref>Rivkin, Steven E. (March 1997). "Benny, Max and Moby". bernardherrmann.org. The Bernard Herrmann Society.</ref> His father, Abram Dardik, was from Ukraine and had changed the family name. Herrmann attended high school at DeWitt Clinton High School, an all-boys public school at that time on 10th Avenue and 59th Street in New York City.<ref>"Herrmann Photo Biography – New York City – The Bernard Herrmann Society". bernardherrmann.org.</ref> His father encouraged music activity, taking him to the opera, and encouraging him to learn the violin. After winning a composition prize at the age of thirteen, he decided to concentrate on music, and went to New York University, where he studied with Percy Grainger and Philip James. He also studied at the Juilliard School and, at the age of twenty, formed his own orchestra, the New Chamber Orchestra of New York.<ref name="FOOTNOTESmith2002">Smith 2002.</ref>
In 1934, he joined the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) as a staff conductor. Within two years he was appointed music director of the Columbia Workshop, an experimental radio drama series for which Herrmann composed or arranged music (one notable program was The Fall of the City). Within nine years, he had become Chief Conductor to the CBS Symphony Orchestra. He was responsible for introducing more new works to US audience than any other conductor — he was a particular champion of Charles Ives' music, which was virtually unknown at that time. Herrmann's radio programs of concert music, which were broadcast under such titles as Invitation to Music and Exploring Music, were planned in an unconventional way and featured rarely heard music, old and new, which was not heard in public concert halls. Examples include broadcasts devoted to music of famous amateurs or of notable royal personages, such as the music of Frederick the Great of Prussia, Henry VIII, Charles I, Louis XIII and so on.
Herrmann's many US broadcast premieres during the 1940s included Myaskovsky's 22nd Symphony, Gian Francesco Malipiero's 3rd Symphony, Richard Arnell's 1st Symphony, Edmund Rubbra's 3rd Symphony and Ives' 3rd Symphony. He performed the works of Hermann Goetz, Alexander Gretchaninov, Niels Gade and Franz Liszt, and received many outstanding American musical awards and grants for his unusual programming and championship of little-known composers. In Dictators of the Baton, David Ewen wrote that Herrmann was "one of the most invigorating influences in the radio music of the past decade." Also during the 1940s, Herrmann's own concert music was taken up and played by such celebrated maestri as Leopold Stokowski, Sir John Barbirolli, Sir Thomas Beecham and Eugene Ormandy.
Between two movies made by Orson Welles (see below), he wrote the score for William Dieterle's The Devil and Daniel Webster (1941), for which he won his only Oscar. In 1947, Herrmann scored the atmospheric music for The Ghost and Mrs. Muir. In 1951 his score for The Day the Earth Stood Still featured the Theremin.
In 1934, Herrmann met a young CBS secretary and aspiring writer, Lucille Fletcher. Fletcher was impressed with Herrmann's work, and the two began a five-year courtship. Marriage was delayed by the objections of Fletcher's parents, who disliked the fact that Herrmann was a Jew and were put off by what they viewed as his abrasive personality. The couple finally married on October 2, 1939. They had two daughters: Dorothy (born 1941) and Wendy (born 1945). Fletcher was to become a noted radio scriptwriter, and she and Herrmann collaborated on several projects throughout their career. He contributed the score to the famed 1941 radio presentation of Fletcher's original story, The Hitch-Hiker, on the Orson Welles Show; and Fletcher helped to write the libretto for his operatic adaptation of Wuthering Heights. The couple divorced in 1948. The next year he married Lucille's cousin, Lucy (Kathy Lucille) Anderson. That marriage lasted 16 years, until 1964.<ref>"Bernard Herrmann (1911-75)". musicacademyonline.com.</ref>
Collaboration with Orson Welles
While at CBS, Herrmann met Orson Welles, and wrote or arranged scores for radio shows in which Welles appeared or wrote, such as the Columbia Workshop, Welles's Mercury Theatre on the Air and Campbell Playhouse series (1938–1940), which were radio adaptations of literature and film. He conducted the live performances, including Welles's famous adaptation of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds broadcast on October 30, 1938, which consisted entirely of pre-existing music.Template:Efn-ua Herrmann used large sections of his score for the inaugural broadcast of The Campbell Playhouse, an adaptation of Rebecca, for the feature film Jane Eyre (1943), the third film in which Welles starred.<ref name="FOOTNOTECallow1995422">Callow 1995, p. 422.</ref>
When Welles gained his RKO Pictures contract, Herrmann worked for him. He wrote his first film score for Citizen Kane (1941) and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Score of a Dramatic Picture. He composed the score for Welles's second film, The Magnificent Ambersons (1942); like the film itself, the music was heavily edited by the studio, RKO Pictures. When more than half of his score was removed from the soundtrack, Herrmann bitterly severed his ties with the film and promised legal action if his name were not removed from the credits.<ref>Husted, Christopher, liner notes for The Magnificent Ambersons: Original 1942 Motion Picture Score, Preamble (PRCD 1783), Fifth Continent Music Corp. 1990</ref>
Herrmann also created the music for Welles's CBS radio series the Orson Welles Show (1941–1942), which included the debut of his wife Lucille Fletcher's suspense classic, The Hitch-Hiker; Ceiling Unlimited (1942), a program conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War II; and The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air (1946).<ref>Radio Music, The Bernard Herrmann Web Pages; retrieved 17 June 2012.</ref> "Benny Herrmann was an intimate member of the family," Welles told filmmaker Peter Bogdanovich.<ref name="FOOTNOTEWellesBogdanovichRosenbaum199256">Welles, Bogdanovich & Rosenbaum 1992, p. 56.</ref>
Herrmann was among those who rebutted the charges Pauline Kael made in her 1971 essay "Raising Kane", in which she revived controversy over the authorship of the screenplay for Citizen Kane and denigrated Welles's contributions.<ref>Gilling, Ted (Spring 1972). "[Interview with George Coulouris and Bernard Herrmann on] The Citizen Kane Book". Sight & Sound: 71–73.</ref><ref>"Bernard Herrmann on working with Orson Welles and Citizen Kane". Wellesnet.com. June 24, 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2017.</ref>
Collaboration with Alfred Hitchcock
Herrmann is closely associated with the director Alfred Hitchcock. He wrote the scores for seven Hitchcock films, from The Trouble with Harry (1955) to Marnie (1964), a period that included Vertigo, North by Northwest, and Psycho. He also was credited as sound consultant on The Birds (1963), as there was no actual music in the film as such, only electronically made bird sounds.
The film score for the remake of The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) was composed by Herrmann, but two of the most significant pieces of music in the film — the song, "Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)", and the Storm Clouds Cantata played in the Royal Albert Hall — are not by Herrmann (although he did re-orchestrate the cantata by Australian-born composer Arthur Benjamin written for the earlier Hitchcock film of the same name). However, this film did give Herrmann the opportunity for an on-screen appearance: he is the conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra in the Albert Hall scene.
Herrmann's most recognizable music is from another Hitchcock film, Psycho. Unusual for a thriller at the time, the score uses only the string section of the orchestra. The screeching violin music heard during the famous shower scene (which Hitchcock originally suggested have no music at all) is one of the most famous moments in film score history. Hitchcock admitted at the time that Psycho heavily depended on the music for its tension and sense of pervading doom.<ref>Smith, S.C. (1991). A heart at fire’s centre: the life and music of Bernard Herrmann. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 236. ISBN 0520229398.</ref>
His score for Vertigo (1958) is seen as just as masterful. In many of the key scenes Hitchcock let Herrmann's score take center stage, a score whose melodies, echoing the "Liebestod" from Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, dramatically convey the main character's obsessive love for the woman he tries to shape into a long-dead, past love.
A notable feature of the Vertigo score is the ominous two-note falling motif that opens the suite — it is a direct musical imitation of the two notes sounded by the fog horns located at either side of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco (as heard from the San Francisco side of the bridge). This motif has direct relevance to the film, since the horns can be clearly heard sounding in just this manner at Fort Point, the spot where a key incident occurs involving the character played by Kim Novak.
However, according to Dan Auiler, author of Vertigo: The Making of a Hitchcock Classic, Herrmann deeply regretted being unable to conduct his composition for Vertigo. A musician's strike in America meant that it was actually conducted in England by Muir Mathieson. Herrmann always personally conducted his own works and while he considered the composition among his best works, he regarded it as a missed opportunity.
In a question-and-answer session at George Eastman House in October 1973, Herrmann stated that, unlike most film composers who did not have any creative input into the style and tone of the score, he insisted on creative control as a condition of accepting a scoring assignment:
I have the final say, or I don’t do the music. The reason for insisting on this is simply, compared to Orson Welles, a man of great musical culture, most other directors are just babes in the woods. If you were to follow their taste, the music would be awful. There are exceptions. I once did a film The Devil and Daniel Webster with a wonderful director William Dieterle. He was also a man of great musical culture. And Hitchcock, you know, is very sensitive; he leaves me alone. It depends on the person. But if I have to take what a director says, I’d rather not do the film. I find it’s impossible to work that way.<ref>"Bernard Herrmann on working with Orson Welles and Citizen Kane". Wellesnet: The Orson Welles Web Resource. 24 June 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2010.</ref>
Herrmann stated that Hitchcock would invite him on to the production of a film and, depending on his decision about the length of the music, either expand or contract the scene. It was Hitchcock who asked Herrmann for the "recognition scene" near the end of Vertigo (the scene in which James Stewart's character suddenly realizes Kim Novak's identity) to be played with music.
In 1963 Herrmann began writing original music for the CBS-TV anthology series, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, which was in its eighth season. Hitchcock himself served only as advisor on the show, which he hosted, but Herrmann was again working with former Mercury Theatre actor Norman Lloyd, co-producer (with Joan Harrison) of the series. Herrmann scored 17 episodes (1963–1965) and, like much of his work for CBS, the music was frequently reused for other programs.<ref name="FOOTNOTESmith1991256–257, 373">Smith 1991, pp. 256–257, 373.</ref>
Herrmann's relationship with Hitchcock came to an abrupt end when they disagreed over the score for Torn Curtain. Reportedly pressured by Universal executives, Hitchcock wanted a score that was more jazz- and pop-influenced. Hitchcock's biographer, Patrick McGilligan, stated that Hitchcock was worried about becoming old-fashioned and felt that Herrmann's music had to change with the times as well. Herrmann initially accepted the offer, but then decided to score the film according to his own ideas.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMcGilligan2001673–674">McGilligan 2001, pp. 673–674.</ref>
Hitchcock listened to only the prelude of the score before confronting Herrmann about the pop score. Herrmann, equally incensed, bellowed, "Look, Hitch, you can't outjump your own shadow. And you don't make pop pictures. What do you want with me? I don't write pop music." Hitchcock unrelentingly insisted that Herrmann change the score, violating Herrmann's general claim to the creative control he had always maintained in their previous work together. Herrmann then said, "Hitch, what's the use of my doing more with you? I had a career before you, and I will afterwards."<ref name="FOOTNOTEMcGilligan2001674">McGilligan 2001, pp. 674.</ref> The score was rejected and replaced with one by John Addison.
According to McGilligan, Herrmann later tried to reconcile with Hitchcock, but Hitchcock refused to see him. Herrmann's widow Norma Herrmann disputed this in a conversation with Günther Kögebehn for the Bernard Herrmann Society in 2004:
I met Hitchcock very briefly. Everybody says they never spoke again. I met him, it was cool, it was not a warm meeting. It was in Universal Studios, this must be 69, 70, 71ish. And we were in Universal for some other reason and Herrmann said: "See that tiny little office over there, that’s Hitch. And that stupid little parking place. Hitch used to have an empire with big offices and a big staff. Then they made it down to half that size, then they made it to half that size … We are going over to say hello." Actually [Herrmann] got a record; he was always intending to give him a record he just made. But it wasn’t a film thing. It was either Moby Dick or something of his concert pieces to take it and give to Hitch. Peggy, Hitchcock’s secretary was there. Hitch came out, Benny said: "I thought you’d like a copy of this." "How are you?" etc. and he introduced me. And Hitchcock was cool, but they did meet. They met, I was there. And when Herrmann came out again he said: “What a great reduction in Hitch’s status."<ref>Kögebehn, Günther, "Running with the Kids: A Conversation with Norma Herrmann". The Bernard Herrmann Estate. June 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2012.</ref>
In 2009, Norma Herrmann began to auction off her husband's personal collection on Bonhams.com, adding more interesting details to the two men's relationship. While Herrmann had brought Hitchcock a copy of his classical work after the break-up, Hitchcock had given Herrmann a copy of his 1967 interview book with François Truffaut, which he inscribed "To Benny with my fondest wishes, Hitch."
"This is rather interesting, because it comes a year after Hitchcock had abruptly fired Herrmann from his work scoring Torn Curtain and indicates Hitchcock may have hoped to mend fences with Herrmann and have him score his next film, Topaz," reported Wellesnet, the Orson Welles website, in April 2009:
Of course, once Herrmann felt he had been wronged, he was not going to say "yes" to Hitchcock unless he was courted and it seems unlikely that Hitchcock would be willing to do that, although apparently Hitchcock did ask Herrmann back to score his last film Family Plot right before Herrmann died. Herrmann, who had a full schedule of films planned for 1976, including DePalma’s Carrie, The Seven Per Cent Solution and Larry Cohen’s God Told Me To, was reportedly happy to be in a position to ignore Hitchcock’s reunion offer.<ref>"Orson Welles to Bernard Herrmann: "I love you truly and your heart is God’s little garden"". Wellesnet: The Orson Welles Web Resource. 12 April 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2012.</ref>
Herrmann's unused score for Torn Curtain was commercially recorded after his death, initially by Elmer Bernstein for his Film Music Collection subscription record label (reissued by Warner Bros. Records), then in a fuller realisation of the original score by Joel McNeely and the Royal Scottish National Orchestra and later, in a concert suite adapted by Christopher Palmer, by Esa-Pekka Salonen and the Los Angeles Philharmonic for Sony. Some of Herrmann's cues for Torn Curtain were later post-synched to the final cut, where they showed how remarkably attuned the composer was to the action, and how, arguably, more effective his score could have been.
Later life and death
From the late 1950s to the mid-1960s, Herrmann scored a series of notable mythically-themed fantasy films, including Journey to the Center of the Earth and the Ray Harryhausen Dynamation epics The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, Jason and the Argonauts, Mysterious Island and The Three Worlds of Gulliver. His score for the 7th Voyage was particularly highly acclaimed by admirers of that genre of film and was praised by Harryhausen as Herrmann's best score of the four.
During the same period, Herrmann turned his talents to writing scores for television shows. He wrote the scores for several well-known episodes of the original Twilight Zone series, including the lesser known theme used during the series' first season, as well as the opening theme to Have Gun–Will Travel.
In the mid-1960s he composed the highly regarded music score for François Truffaut's Fahrenheit 451. Scored for strings, two harps, vibraphone, xylophone and glockenspiel, Herrmann's score created a driving, neurotic mood that perfectly suited the film. It also had a direct influence on producer George Martin's staccato string arrangement for Beatles 1966 smash hit single "Eleanor Rigby".
By 1967 Herrmann worked almost exclusively in England. In November 1967, the 56-year-old composer married 27-year-old journalist Norma Shepherd, his third wife. In August 1971 the Herrmanns made London their permanent home.<ref name="FOOTNOTESmith1991287, 308">Smith 1991, pp. 287, 308.</ref>
Herrmann's last film scores included Sisters and Obsession for Brian De Palma. His final film soundtrack, and the last work he completed before his death, was his sombre score for Taxi Driver (1976), directed by Martin Scorsese. It was De Palma who had suggested to Scorsese to use the composer. Immediately after finishing the recording of the Taxi Driver soundtrack on December 23, 1975, Herrmann viewed the rough cut of what was to be his next film assignment, Larry Cohen's God Told Me To, and dined with Cohen, after which he returned to his hotel for the night. Bernard Herrmann died from cardiovascular disease in his sleep at his hotel in Los Angeles, during the night. Scorsese and Cohen dedicated both Taxi Driver and God Told Me To to Herrmann's memory. In a 2011 interview on a TCM television special, Steven Spielberg recalls Herrmann's last day. Taxi Driver director and Spielberg's friend Martin Scorsese called him over to Warner Bros Studio on December 23, 1975 to meet the famed film composer. There, Spielberg met Herrmann, whom he recalled as a very rotund man chomping on a big cigar, and very gracious for the professional praise from the young filmmaker.
As well as his many film scores, Herrmann wrote several concert pieces, including his Symphony in 1941; the opera Wuthering Heights; the cantata Moby Dick (1938), dedicated to Charles Ives; and For the Fallen, a tribute to the soldiers who died in battle in World War II, among others. He recorded all these compositions, and several others, for the Unicorn label during his last years in London. A work written late in his life, Souvenir de Voyages, showed his ability to write non-programmatic pieces.
Compositional style and philosophy
Herrmann's music is typified by frequent use of ostinati (short repeating patterns), novel orchestration and, in his film scores, an ability to portray character traits not altogether obvious from other elements of the film.
Early in his life, Herrmann committed himself to a creed of personal integrity at the price of unpopularity: the quintessential artist. His philosophy is summarized by a favorite Tolstoy quote: ‘Eagles fly alone and sparrows fly in flocks.' Thus, Herrmann would only compose music for films when he was allowed the artistic liberty to compose what he wished without the director getting in the way: the cause of the split with Hitchcock after over a decade of composing scores for the director's films.
His philosophy of orchestrating film was based on the assumption that the musicians were selected and hired for the recording session — that this music was not constrained to the musical forces of the concert hall. For example, his use of nine harps in Beneath the 12 Mile Reef created an extraordinary underwater-like sonic landscape;<ref>"Beneath the 12-Mile Reef (1953) Music by Bernard Herrmann". Film Score Monthly. 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.</ref> his use of four alto flutes in Citizen Kane contributed to the creepy opening, only matched by the use of 12 flutes in his unused Torn Curtain score; and his use of the serpent in White Witch Doctor is possibly the first use of that instrument in a film score.[clarification needed]
Herrmann said: "To orchestrate is like a thumbprint. I can't understand having someone else do it. It would be like someone putting color to your paintings."<ref>Hall, Roger L. A tribute to Bernard Hermann. A Guide to Film Music. Americanmusicpreservation.com. p. 43.</ref>
Herrmann subscribed to the belief that the best film music should be able to stand on its own legs when detached from the film for which it was originally written. To this end, he made several well-known recordings for Decca of arrangements of his own film music as well as music of other prominent composers.
Use of electronic instruments
Herrmann's involvement with electronic musical instruments dates back to 1951, when he used the theremin in The Day the Earth Stood Still. Robert B. Sexton has noted that this score involved the use of treble and bass theremins (played by Dr. Samuel Hoffmann and Paul Shure), electric strings, bass, prepared piano, and guitar together with various pianos and harps, electronic organs, brass, and percussion, and that Herrmann treated the theremins as a truly orchestral section.
Herrmann was a sound consultant on The Birds, which made extensive use of an electronic instrument called the mixturtrautonium, although the instrument was performed by Oskar Sala on the film’s soundtrack. Herrmann used several electronic instruments on his score of It’s Alive, as well as the Moog synthesizer for the main themes in Endless Night and Sisters.
Legacy and recording
Herrmann is still a prominent figure in the world of film music today, despite his death in 1975. As such, his career has been studied extensively by biographers and documentarians. His string-only score for Psycho, for example, set the standard when it became a new way to write music for thrillers (rather than big fully orchestrated pieces). In 1992 a documentary, Music for the Movies: Bernard Herrmann, was made about him. Also in 1992 a 2½-hour-long National Public Radio documentary was produced on his life — Bernard Herrmann: a Celebration of his Life and Music (Bruce A. Crawford). In 1991, Steven C. Smith wrote a Herrmann biography titled A Heart at Fire's Center, a quotation from a favorite Stephen Spender poem of Herrmann's.
His music continues to be used in films and recordings after his death. "Georgie's Theme" from Herrmann's score for the 1968 film Twisted Nerve is whistled by one-eyed nurse Elle Driver in the hospital corridor scene in Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill: Volume 1 (2003). The opening theme from Vertigo was used in the prologue to Lady Gaga's "Born This Way" video, and during a flashback sequence in the pilot episode of FX's American Horror Story, which also featured "Georgie's Theme" in later episodes as a recurring musical motif for the character of Tate. Vertigo's opening sequence was also copied for the opening sequence of the 1993 miniseries, "Tales Of The City", an adaptation of a series of books by Armistead Maupin. Fellow film composer Danny Elfman adapted Herrmann's music for Psycho for use in director Gus Van Sant's 1998 remake and borrowed from Herrmann's "Mountaintop/Sunrise" theme, from Journey to the Center of the Earth, for his main Batman theme. On its 1977 album Ra, American progressive rock group Utopia also adapted "Mountaintop/Sunrise," in a rock arrangement, as the introduction to the album's opening song, "Communion With The Sun." And most recently, Ludovic Bource used the love theme from Vertigo literally in the last reels of 2011's The Artist.
Herrmann's film music is well represented on disc. His friend, John Steven Lasher, has produced several albums featuring Urtext recordings, including Battle of Neretva, Citizen Kane, The Kentuckian, The Magnificent Ambersons, The Night Digger and Sisters, under various labels owned by Fifth Continent Australia Pty Ltd.
Herrmann was an early and enthusiastic proponent of the music of Charles Ives. He met Ives in the early 1930s, performed many of his works while conductor of the CBS Symphony Orchestra, and conducted Ives' Second Symphony with the London Symphony Orchestra on his first visit to London in 1956. Herrmann later made a recording of the work in 1972 and this reunion with the LSO, after more than a decade, was significant to him for several reasons - he had long hoped to record his own interpretation of the symphony, feeling that Leonard Bernstein's 1951 version was "overblown and inaccurate"; on a personal level, it also served to assuage Herrmann's long-held feeling that he had been snubbed by the orchestra after his first visit in 1956. The notoriously prickly composer had also been enraged by the recent appointment of the LSO's new chief conductor André Previn, who Herrmann detested, and deprecatingly referred to as "that jazz boy".<ref name="FOOTNOTESmith2002316">Smith 2002, pp. 316.</ref>
Herrmann was also an ardent champion of the romantic-era composer Joachim Raff, whose music had fallen into near-oblivion by the 1960s. During the 1940s, Herrmann had played Raff's 3rd and 5th Symphonies in his CBS radio broadcasts. In May 1970, Herrmann conducted the world premiere recording of Raff's Fifth Symphony Lenore for the Unicorn label, which he mainly financed himself.<ref name="FOOTNOTESmith2002299">Smith 2002, pp. 299.</ref> The recording did not attract much notice in its time, despite receiving excellent reviews, but is now considered a major turning-point in the rehabilitation of Raff as a composer.
In 1996, Sony Classical released a recording of Herrmann's music, The Film Scores, performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic under the baton of Esa-Pekka Salonen. This disc received the 1998 Cannes Classical Music Award for "Best 20th-Century Orchestral Recording." It was also nominated for the 1998 Grammy Award for "Best Engineered Album, Classical." In 2004 Sony Classical re-released this superb recording at a budget price in its "Great Performances" series (SNYC 92767SK).
Decca reissued on CD a series of Phase 4 Stereo recordings with Herrmann conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra, mostly in excerpts from his various film scores, including one devoted to music from several of the Hitchcock films (including Psycho, Marnie and Vertigo). In the liner notes of the Hitchcock Phase 4 album, Herrmann said that the suite from The Trouble with Harry was a "portrait of Hitch". Another album was devoted to his fantasy film scores — a few of them being the films of the special effects animator Ray Harryhausen, including music from The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad and The Three Worlds of Gulliver. His other Phase 4 Stereo LPs of the 1970s included Music from the Great Film Classics (suites and excerpts from Jane Eyre, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, Citizen Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster); and "The Fantasy World of Bernard Herrmann" (Journey to the Center of the Earth, The Day the Earth Stood Still, and Fahrenheit 451.)
Fellow composers Richard Band, Graeme Revell, Christopher Young, Danny Elfman and Brian Tyler consider Herrmann to be a major inspiration. In 1985, Richard Band's opening theme to Re-Animator borrows heavily from Herrmann's opening score to Psycho. In 1990, Graeme Revell had adapted Herrmann's music from Psycho for its television sequel-prequel Psycho IV: The Beginning. Revell's early orchestral music during the early nineties, such as Child's Play 2 (which its music score being a reminiscent of Herrmann's scores to the 1973 film Sisters, due to the synthesizers incorporated in the chilling parts of the orchestral score) as well as the 1963 The Twilight Zone episode "Living Doll" (which inspired the Child's Play franchise), were very similar to Herrmann's work. Also, Revell's score for the video game Call of Duty 2 was very much a reminiscent of Herrmann's very rare WWII music scores such as The Naked and the Dead and Battle of Neretva. Young, who was a jazz drummer at first, listened to Herrmann's works which convinced him to be a film composer. Elfman has said he first became interested in film music upon seeing The Day the Earth Stood Still, and he paid homage to that score in his music for Mars Attacks! Tyler's score for Bill Paxton's film Frailty was greatly influenced by Herrmann's film music.
Sir George Martin, best known for producing and often adding orchestration to The Beatles music, cites Herrmann as an influence in his own work, particularly in Martin's scoring of the Beatles' song "Eleanor Rigby". Martin later expanded on this as an extended suite for McCartney's 1984 film Give My Regards to Broad Street, which features a very recognizable hommage to Herrmann's score for Psycho.
Elmer Bernstein adapted and arranged Herrmann's original score from J. Lee Thompson's Cape Fear (1962), and used it for the 1991 Martin Scorsese remake. After Bernstein realized there was not enough music in the score from the original film, he added sections from Herrmann's unused score for Hitchcock's Torn Curtain, including the music composed for the murder of the character "Gromek". The score for Cape Fear evokes both the gathering clouds of the destructive hurricane and the murderous intent of killer Max Cady. Bernstein also recorded Herrmann's score for The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, which was released in 1975 on the Varese Sarabande label later reissued on CD in the 1990s.
Charles Gerhardt conducted a 1974 RCA recording entitled "The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann" with the National Philharmonic Orchestra. It featured Suites from Citizen Kane (with Kiri Te Kanawa singing Salammbo's Aria) and White Witch Doctor, along with music from On Dangerous Ground, Beneath the 12-Mile Reef, and the Hangover Square Piano Concerto.
During his last years in England, between 1966 and 1975, Herrmann made several LPs of other composers' music for assorted record labels. These included Phase 4 Stereo recordings of Gustav Holst's The Planets and Charles Ives's 2nd Symphony, as well as an album entitled "The Impressionists" (music by Satie, Debussy, Ravel, Fauré and Honegger) and another entitled "The Four Faces of Jazz" (works by Weill, Gershwin, Stravinsky and Milhaud). As well as recording his own film music in Phase 4 Stereo he made LPs of movie scores by others, such as "Great Shakespearean Films" (music by Shostakovich for Hamlet, Walton for Richard III and Rózsa for Julius Caesar), and "Great British Film Music" (movie scores by Lambert, Bax, Benjamin, Walton, Vaughan Williams, and Bliss).
For Unicorn Records, he recorded several of his own concert-hall works, including the cantata Moby Dick, his opera Wuthering Heights, his Symphony, and the suites Welles Raises Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster.
Pristine Audio has released two CDs of Herrmann's radio broadcasts. One is devoted to a CBS programme from 1945 that features music by Handel, Vaughan Williams and Elgar; the other is devoted to works by Charles Ives, Robert Russell Bennett and Herrmann himself.
These awards and nominations are recorded by the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences:<ref>The Official Academy Awards Database as of February 22, 2015 Archived September 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., accessed 17 March 2015.</ref>
- 1941: Winner, Music Score of a Dramatic Picture, The Devil and Daniel Webster (later renamed All That Money Can Buy)
- 1941: Nominee, Music Score of a Dramatic Motion Picture, Citizen Kane
- 1946: Nominee, Music Score of a Dramatic Picture, Anna and the King of Siam
- 1976: Nominee, Original Score, Obsession
- 1976: Nominee, Original Score, Taxi Driver
American Film Institute
In 2005 the American Film Institute respectively ranked Herrmann's scores for Psycho and Vertigo #4 and #12 on their list of the 25 greatest film scores.<ref>Press Release, "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores; 'Star Wars' tops AFI's list of 25 greatest film scores of all time". American Film Institute, September 23, 2005. Retrieved 12 January 2013.</ref> His scores for the following films were also nominated for the list:<ref>Official Ballot (PDF), AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores</ref>
- Citizen Kane (1941)
- The Devil and Daniel Webster (1941)
- Jane Eyre (1944)
- The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947)
- The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951)
- North by Northwest (1959)
- Taxi Driver (1976)
British Academy Film Awards
In popular culture
- Part of Herrmann's score for The Trouble with Harry was used in a 2010 U.S. television commercial for the Volkswagen CC.<ref>"Bernard Hermann in a VW Commercial". Film Score Monthly. Retrieved 17 March 2015.</ref><ref>"VW Volkswagen CC TV Commercial Music - Adtunes". Adtunes Forums.</ref>
- Music from the Vertigo soundtrack was used in BBC Four's Spitfire Women documentary, aired in the UK in September 2010.<ref>"BBC Four - Spitfire Women". BBC.</ref>
- A 2011 TV commercial entitled "Snowpocalypse" for Dodge all-wheel drive vehicles uses Herrmann's main title theme for Cape Fear.<ref> on YouTube, accessed 20 March 2013.</ref>
- "Gimme Some More" by Busta Rhymes is based on a sample from Herrmann's score from Psycho.
- The prologue to Lady Gaga's 2011 video for the song Born This Way features Herrmann's Vertigo prelude.<ref> on YouTube</ref><ref>AOL. "Lady Gaga Debuts 'Born This Way' Video". PopEater.</ref>
- The 2011 FX series American Horror Story has used cues from Twisted Nerve, Psycho, and Vertigo for episode scores.
- The 2011 film The Artist used a soundtrack recording of the love theme from Vertigo. Film actress Kim Novak later voiced her concern about the use of the music, saying that her work "had been violated by the film, The Artist." <ref>Kilday, Gregg (January 9, 2012). "Kim Novak Cries 'Rape' Over 'The Artist's' Use of Music From 'Vertigo'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 29 January 2012.</ref>
- Paul Schackman portrayed Herrmann in the 2012 biopic Hitchcock.
- "The Whistle Song" from Twisted Nerve was used as an opening theme for the Quentin Tarantino film Kill Bill: Volume 1.
- Herrmann's scores from many Hitchcock films are prominently featured in the New York City immersive theatrical production Sleep No More; particular standouts include the prelude from The Man Who Knew Too Much as audience members wind through the dark portal-like maze at the start of the experience, leading them back in time to the 1930s; moments from Psycho being used to underscore the Macbeth elements of the story; and the characters' hour-long loops restarting to the opening suite from Vertigo.
These works are for narrator and full orchestra, intended to be broadcast over the radio (since a human voice would not be able to be heard over the full volume of an orchestra). In a 1938 broadcast of the Columbia Workshop,<ref>"The Columbia Workshop — Melodrams". Internet Archive. Retrieved 11 June 2014.</ref> Herrmann distinguished "melodrama" from "melodram" and explained that these works are not part of the former, but the latter. The 1935 works were composed before June 1935.
- La Belle Dame Sans Merci (September 1934)
- The City of Brass (December 1934)
- Annabel Lee (1934–1935)
- Poem Cycle (1935):
- The Willow Leaf
- Weep No More, Sad Fountains
- Something Tells
- A Shropshire Lad (1935)
- Cynara (June 1935)
Incidental music for radio shows and dramas
See also Columbia Workshop for programs in which Herrmann participated but did not write original music.
- Palmolive Beauty Box (c. 1935) (2 existing cues)
- Dauber (October 1936)
- Rhythm of the Jute Mill (December 1936)
- Gods of the Mountain (1937)
- A Christmas Carol (1954, a CBS-TV special, after Dickens)
- A Child Is Born (1955, a TV special hosted by Ronald Reagan with singers Nadine Conner and Theodor Uppman)
- Brave New World (1956)
- Wuthering Heights: Opera (1951)
- The King of Schnorrers (1968) Musical comedy
- The Forest: Tone poem for Large Orchestra (1929)
- November Dusk: Tone Poem for Large Orchestra (1929)
- Tempest and Storm: Furies Shrieking!: for Piano (1929)
- The Dancing Faun and The Bells: Two Songs for Medium Voice and Small Chamber Orchestra (1929)
- Requiescat: Violin and Piano (1929)
- Twilight: Violin and Piano (1929)
- March Militaire (1932), ballet music for Americana Revue (1932)
- Aria for Flute and Harp (1932)
- Variations on "Deep River" and "Water Boy" (1933)
- Prelude to Anathema: for Fifteen Instruments (1933)
- Silent Noon: for Fourteen Instruments (1933)
- The Body Beautiful (1935), music from the Broadway play
- Nocturne and Scherzo (1935)
- Sinfonietta for Strings (1935)
- Currier and Ives Suite (1935)
- Violin Concerto: Unfinished (1937)
- Moby Dick (1937): cantata
- Johnny Appleseed: Unfinished Cantata (1940)
- Symphony No. 1 (1941)
- The Fantasticks (1942)
- The Devil and Daniel Webster Suite (1942)
- For the Fallen (1943)
- Welles Raises Kane (1943)
- Echoes: String Quartet (1965)
- Souvenirs de Voyage (1967)
- Columbia Workshop - a radio series for which Herrmann was music director and composed or arranged many episodes.
- High Anxiety — a comedy spoof that parodies many Hitchcock devices including Herrmann's music.
- Hitchcock & Herrmann — a stage play about the relationship between Herrmann and Alfred Hitchcock.
- Callow, Simon (1995). Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. New York, London: Jonathan Cape, Viking Press. p. 422. ISBN 0670867225.
- McGilligan, Patrick (2001). Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light. New York: Harper Perennial. pp. 673–674. ISBN 978-0-06-098827-2.
- Smith, Steven C. (1991). A Heart at Fire's Center: The Life and Music of Bernard Herrmann. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07123-9.
- Smith, Steven C. (2002). A Heart at Fire's Center: The Life and Music of Bernard Herrmann With a New Preface. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0520229398.
- Welles, Orson; Bogdanovich, Peter; Rosenbaum, Jonathan, Editor (1992). This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 56. ISBN 0-06-016616-9.
- Cooper, David (2001). Bernard Herrmann's Vertigo: A Film Score Handbook. US: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31490-X.
- Cooper, David (2005). Bernard Herrmann's The Ghost and Mrs Muir: A Film Score Guide. US: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5679-4.
- Johnson, Edward (1977). Bernard Herrmann – Hollywood's Music-Dramatist – Foreword by Miklos Rozsa. Rickmansworth, UK: Triad Press – Bibliographical Series No. 6.
- Radigales, Jaume: 'Wagner’s Heritage in Cinema: The Bernard Herrmann Case' In: Stoppe, Sebastian (2014). Film in Concert. Film Scores and their Relation to Classical Concert Music. Glücksstadt, Germany: VWH Verlag. pp. 45–62. ISBN 978-3-86488060-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bernard Herrmann.|
- The Bernard Herrmann Estate
- The Bernard Herrmann Society
- Bernard Herrmann at the Internet Movie Database
- Bernard Herrmann discography at Discogs
- Bernard Herrmann papers, at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library.
- Bernard Herrmann: The Early Years
- Bernard Herrmann at Soundtrackguide.net
- Bernard Herrmann: A Celebration of his Life and Music (1988 radio documentary)
- Bernard Herrmann: A Centennial Tribute
- Gramophone magazine obituary, February 1976.
- Citizen Kane: The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann at AllMusic
- Bernard Herrmann at Find a Grave
- Bernard Herrmann at 100 — CBS News (June 2011)
- Hitchcock And Herrmann
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