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|Cultural origins||Early 1980s, U.S. (New York City and Detroit), Japan<ref name="wire_1996"/>|
Electro (or electro-funk)<ref name=ElectroHistoryRoots>"Electro-Funk > WHAT DID IT ALL MEAN ?". Greg Wilson on electrofunkroots.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-12-23.</ref><ref name="globaldarkness.com">Rap meets Techno, with a short history of Electro. Globaldarkness.com. Retrieved on 2011-07-18.</ref> is a genre of electronic music and early hip hop directly influenced by the use of the Roland TR-808 drum machines,<ref>Gavin Weale (2001) The Future Sound Of Electro. Electroempire.com</ref><ref name="softskull">Reynolds, Simon (2013). Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Soft Skull Press.
The dominant style at Hard Summer, provided by artists like Zedd, Erol Alkan and Bloody Beetroots, is what's been tagged 'electro house', although to my ears it has little relationship with either house or electro (in the original eighties 808-bass-bumping sense). </ref> and funk.<ref>Electro itself is a musical style blending "funk & synthesizers with elements of hip-hop", according to Dent, Susie (2003). "The Language Report": 43.</ref><ref>Sean 'P-Ski' P (1995) Electro – What Does It Mean?. Electroempire.com</ref> Records in the genre typically feature drum machines and heavy electronic sounds, usually without vocals, although if vocals are present they are delivered in a deadpan manner, often through electronic distortion such as vocoding and talkboxing. This is the main distinction between electro and previously prominent genres such as disco, in which the electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation. It also palpably deviates from its predecessor boogie for being less vocal-oriented and more focused on electronic beats produced by drum machines.
Following the decline of disco music in the United States, electro emerged as a fusion of funk and New York boogie. Early hip hop and rap combined with German and Japanese electropop influences such as Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra (YMO) inspired the birth of electro.<ref name="Electro">"Electro". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-06-20.</ref> In 1982, producer Arthur Baker with Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal "Planet Rock", which was built using samples from Kraftwerk's Trans Europe Express and drum beats supplied by the TR-808. Planet Rock was followed later that year by another breakthrough electro record, Nunk by Warp 9. In 1983, Hashim created an electro funk sound which influenced Herbie Hancock, resulting in his hit single "Rockit". The early 1980s were electro's mainstream peak. By the mid 1980s, the genre moved away from its electronic and funk influences, using harder edged beats and rock samples, exemplified by Run DMC. Electro became popular again in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke.<ref name="ishkurOnElectro">Ishkur (2005). "Ishkur's guide to Electronic Music". Retrieved June 1, 2014.</ref> A third wave of popularity occurred in 2007. Electro has branched out into subgenres, including Electrocore and Skweee, which developed in Sweden and Finland.
Definition and characteristics
The beat like that of a TR-808 at 0:04 and the electronically processed vocals at 0:22 are characteristic of the genre. (credit: Breaking Energy by 808Chunk)
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From its inception, one of the defining characteristics of the electro sound was the use of drum machines, particularly the Roland TR-808, as the rhythmic basis of the track. As the genre evolved, computers and sampling replaced drum machines in electronic music, and are now used by the majority of electro producers. It is important to note, that although the electro of the 1980s and contemporary electro (electronic dance music) both grew out of the dissolution of disco, they are now different genres.
Classic (1980s) electro drum patterns tend to be electronic emulations of breakbeats (occasionally a four to the floor pattern is used as well), with a syncopated kick drum, and usually a snare or clap accenting the backbeat. The difference between electro drumbeats and breakbeats (or breaks) is that electro tends to be more mechanical, while breakbeats tend to have more of a human-like feel, like that of a live drummer. The definition however is somewhat ambiguous in nature due to the various uses of the term.<ref>Electro-Funk : What Did It All Mean?. Electrofunkroots.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-07-18.</ref>
The Roland TR-808 drum machine hit the market in 1980, defining early electro with its immediately recognizable sound. Staccato, percussive drumbeats tended to dominate electro, almost exclusively provided by the TR-808. As an inexpensive way of producing a drum sound, the TR-808 caught on quickly with the producers of early electro because of the ability of its bass drum to generate extreme low-frequencies.<ref name=Anysound>"Anysound". Keyboard. 14 (11): 34. 1988.; as cited in Théberge, Paul (1997). Any sound you can imagine: making music/consuming all counts of technology. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press. pp. 197. ISBN 0-8195-6309-9.</ref> This aspect of the Roland TR-808 was especially appealing to producers who would test drive their tracks in nightclubs (like NYC's Funhouse), where the bass drum sound was essential for a record's success.<ref>Harvey, Steven "The Perfect Beat" The Face Magazine, October, 1983</ref> Its unique percussion sounds like handclaps, open and closed high-hat, clave and cowbell became integral to the electro sound. A number of popular songs in the early 1980s employed the TR-808, including Marvin Gaye’s “Sexual Healing,” Cybotron’s “Clear,” and Afrika Bambaataa’s “Planet Rock.”<ref>Dayal, Geeta (2013). The Grove Dictionary of American Music. Oxford Music Online. pp. Roland TR–808 – via Oxford Music Online.</ref> The Roland TR-808 has attained iconic status, eventually being used on more hits than any other drum machine.<ref>Peter Wells (2004), A Beginner's Guide to Digital Video, AVA Books, p. 18, ISBN 2-88479-037-3, retrieved 2011-05-20</ref> Through the use of samples, the Roland TR-808 remains popular in electro and other genres to the present day.
Other electro instrumentation was generally electronic, favoring analog synthesis, programmed bass lines, sequenced or arpeggiated synthetic riffs, and atonal sound effects all created with synthesizers. Heavy use of effects such as reverbs, delays, chorus or phasers along with eerie synthetic ensemble strings or pad sounds emphasized the science fiction or futuristic themes of classic (1980s) electro, represented in the lyrics and/or music. Electro hip hop group Warp 9's 1983 single, Light Years Away, produced and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, exemplifies the Sci-Fi, afrofuturist aspect of electro,<ref name=Toop-2000 /> reflected in both the lyrics and instrumentation. The imagery of its lyrical refrain space is the place for the human race pays homage to Sun Ra's 1974 film,<ref>IMDb</ref> while its synth lines and sound effects are informed by sci-fi, computer games, and cartoons,"born of a science-fiction revival.".<ref name=Toop-2000 />Template:Rp
Most electro is instrumental, but a common element is vocals processed through a vocoder. Additionally, speech synthesis may be used to create robotic or mechanical lyrical content, as in the iconic Planet Rock and the automatous chant in the chorus of Nunk by Warp 9.<ref>"Scifi Street Sounds"</ref> Although primarily instrumental, early electro utilized rap. Male rap dominated the genre, however female rappers are an integral part of the electro tradition, whether featured in a group as in Warp 9 or as solo performers like Roxanne Shante. The lyrical style that emerged along with electro became less popular by the 1990s, as rapping continued to evolve, becoming the domain of hip hop music.
About electro origins, Greg Wilson claims:
|“||It was all about stretching the boundaries that had begun to stifle black music, and its influences lay not only with German technopop wizards Kraftwerk, the acknowledged forefathers of pure electro, plus British futurist acts like the Human League and Gary Numan, but also with a number of pioneering black musicians. Major artists like Miles Davis, Sly Stone, Herbie Hancock, Stevie Wonder, legendary producer Norman Whitfield and, of course, George Clinton and his P Funk brigade, would all play their part in shaping this new sound via their innovative use of electronic instruments during the 70’s (and as early as the late 60’s in Miles Davis’s case).||”|
Following the decline of disco music in the late 1970s, various funk artists such as Zapp & Roger began experimenting with talk boxes and the use of heavier, more distinctive beats. Boogie played a role during the formative years of electro, notably "Feels Good" by Electra (Emergency – EMDS-6527),<ref name=Kraftinwork/> the post-disco production "You're the One for Me" by D. Train (Prelude – PRL D 621),<ref name=Kraftinwork>David Pattie, Sean Albiez (2011). Kraftwerk: Music Non-Stop. A&C Black, 2011. p. 728. ISBN 9781441191366.</ref> and the Eric Matthew/Darryl Payne productions "Thanks to You" by Sinnamon (Becket – BKD 508),<ref name=Kraftinwork/> and "On A Journey (I Sing The Funk Electric)" by Electrik Funk (Prelude – PRL D 541).<ref name=Kraftinwork/> Electro eventually emerged as a fusion of different styles, including funk, boogie combined with German and Japanese technopop, in addition to influences from the futurism of Alvin Toffler, martial arts films, and video game music. The genre's immediate forebearers included Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra (YMO),<ref name="Electro"/> and Cat Stevens.<ref name="wire_1996"/>
In 1980, YMO was the first band to utilize the TR-808 programmable drum machine.<ref>Mickey Hess (2007), Icons of hip hop: an encyclopedia of the movement, music, and culture, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, p. 75, ISBN 0-313-33903-1, retrieved 2011-05-29</ref><ref>Jason Anderson (November 28, 2008). "Slaves to the rhythm: Kanye West is the latest to pay tribute to a classic drum machine". CBC News. Retrieved 2011-05-29.</ref> That same year, YMO member Ryuichi Sakamoto released "Riot in Lagos", which is regarded as an early example of electro music,<ref>Broughton, Frank (2007). La historia del DJ / The DJ's Story, Volume 2. Ediciones Robinbook. p. 121. ISBN 84-96222-79-9. Retrieved 25 May 2011.</ref><ref name="mantronik_interview"/> and is credited for having anticipated the beats and sounds of electro.<ref name="wire_1996">David Toop (March 1996), "A-Z Of Electro", The Wire (145), retrieved 2011-05-29</ref> The song's influence can be seen in the work of later pioneering electro artists such as Afrika Bambaataa<ref name="wire_1996"/> and Mantronix.<ref name="mantronik_interview">"Kurtis Mantronik Interview", Hip Hop Storage, July 2002, archived from the original on 2011-05-24, retrieved 2011-05-25</ref>
1982 was a watershed year for electro. Bronx based producer Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal track "Planet Rock", which contained elements of Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" (from the album of the same name) and "Numbers" (from Kraftwerk's 1981 Computer World album)<ref name="globaldarkness.com"/><ref name="wire_1996"/><ref name="perkins_1996">William Eric Perkins (1996), Droppin' science: critical essays on rap music and hip hop culture, Temple University Press, p. 12, ISBN 1-56639-362-0, retrieved 2011-05-26</ref> combined with the use of distinctive TR-808 beats.<ref name="wire_1996"/> "Planet Rock" is widely regarded as a turning point in the electro genre, "like a light being switched on."<ref name=Toop-2000 />Template:Rp<ref>Sicko, D., Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk, Billboard Books, 1999 (Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".), p. 73.</ref> Another groundbreaking record released that year, Nunk by Warp 9 utilized "imagery drawn from computer games and hip hop slanguage."<ref name="Toop-2000" /> Although remaining unreleased, a pre-Def Jam Russell Simmons produced Bruce Haack's proto hip-hop single "Party Machine" at a studio in Philadelphia. Electro hip hop releases in 1982 include songs by: Planet Patrol, Warp 9, Man Parrish, George Clinton (Computer Games), Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Tyrone Brunson, The Jonzun Crew and Whodini.<ref name="Toop-2000" />
In 1983, Hashim created the influential electro funk tune "Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)" which became Cutting Record's first release in November 1983.<ref>Kellman, A. (2007). Hashim Biography. All Media Guide. Retrieved September 6, 2007, from </ref> At the time Hashim was influenced by Man Parrish's "Hip Hop, Be Bop", Thomas Dolby's "She Blinded Me With Science" and Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock".<ref>Electro Empire. (2000). Hashim interview. ElectroEmpire Articles. Retrieved on September 5, 2007. from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2011-08-07.</ref> "Al-Nafyish" was later included in Playgroup's compilation album Kings of Electro (2007), alongside other electro classics such as Sakamoto's "Riot in Lagos".<ref>Kings of Electro at AllMusic</ref> Also in 1983, Herbie Hancock, in collaboration with Grand Mixer D.ST, released the hit single "Rockit".
Bambaataa and groups like Planet Patrol, Jonzun Crew, Mantronix, Newcleus, Warp 9 and Juan Atkins' Detroit-based group Cybotron went on to influence the genres of Detroit techno, ghettotech, breakbeat, drum and bass and electroclash. Early producers in the electro genre (notably Arthur Baker,<ref>When The Planet Rocked. Electrofunkroots.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-07-18.</ref> John Robie and Shep Pettibone) later featured prominently in the Latin Freestyle (or simply "Freestyle") movement, along with Lotti Golden and Richard Scher (the producer/writers of Warp 9) fusing electro, funk, and hip hop with elements of Latin music.<ref name=Toop-2000>Toop, David (2000). Rap Attack 3: African Rap To Global Hip Hop. (Expanded Third Edition) Serpent's Tail, London N4 2BT p.148 Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref> Detroit techno DJ Eddie Fowlkes shaped a style called electro-soul, which was characterized by a predominant bass line and a chopped up electro breakbeat contrasted with soulful male vocals.<ref>King, SB (2003). "The Fader". The Fader (16-17): 188.</ref> Kurtis Mantronik's electro-soul productions for Joyce Sims presaged new jack swing's combination of hip hop and soul elements.<ref>Shapiro, Peter (2005). The Rough Guide to Hip-Hop (2nd ed.). Rough Guides. p. 2005. ISBN 1843532638.</ref>
By the late 1980s, the genre evolved into what is known today as new school hip hop. The release of Run DMC's It's Like That (1983) marked a stylistic shift, focusing down on the beats in a stark, metal minimalism.<ref name=Toop-2000 />Template:Rp Rock samples replaced synthesizers that had figured so prominently in electro, and rap styles and techniques evolved in tandem, anchoring rap to the changing hip hop culture.<ref name="allmusic">"Electro". Retrieved October 4, 2014.
Despite its successes (documented in full on Rhino's four-disc Electric Funk set), the style was quickly eclipsed by the mid-'80s rise of hip-hop music built around samples (often from rock records) rather than musical synthesizers.</ref>
Baker, Pettibone, Golden and Scher enjoyed robust careers well into the house era, eluding the "genre trap" to successfully produce mainstream artists.<ref>Miami Gets Put On the Musical Map. Electroempire.com</ref>
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Although the early 1980s were electro's heyday in the mainstream, it enjoyed renewed popularity in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke, and has made yet another comeback for a third wave of popularity in 2007. The continued interest in electro, though influenced to a great degree by Florida, Detroit, Miami, Los Angeles and New York styles, has primarily taken hold in Florida and Europe with electro club nights becoming commonplace again. The scene still manages to support hundreds of electro labels, from the disco electro of Clone Records, to the old school b-boy styles of Breakin’ Records and Dominance Electricity, to the electrofunk of Citinite, and to harder more modern styles of electro of labels like Bass Frequency Productions and Nu Illusion Music.
New branches of electro have risen over the last couple of years. Florida has pioneered the "Electrocore" sound, started in the late 1990s by artists like Jackal & Hyde and Dynamix II and carried on to this day. Skweee is a genre which developed in Nordic countries such as Sweden and Finland, hence its first name "Scandinavian Funk". The outlets and artists of Skweee are still mostly limited to the Nordic countries.
From the late 1990s onward, the term "electro" is also used to refer two other fusion genres of electro, either blended with techno and new wave in electroclash,<ref>D. Lynskey (22 March 2002). "Out with the old, in with the older". Guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 February 2011.</ref><ref>The Electroclash Mix by Larry Tee | Music Review | Entertainment Weekly</ref> or with house and the former in electro house.<ref name="3345 DJ Cyclopedia House music styles">"Music Definitions - House music : styles". DJ Cyclopedia. 3345. Archived from the original on 2005-07-10.
Electro house : Sometimes resembles tech house, but often influenced by the 'electro' sound of the early 1980's, a.k.a. breakdancing music, via samples or just synthesizer usage.</ref><ref name="da-housemusic Tumblr">"Electro House". Tumblr. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
It was in the early 2000s when a big movement of electroclash being mixed with synthpop. Meanwhile, tech house was also becoming more known and gaining some serious buzz. When the two were combined that is when Electro House came to be the way it is now. ... 'Satisfaction' was one of those songs that people would have stuck in their head for days. This song still continues to receive a lot of attention even now. It won world wide rewards as well as make Benny Benassi the father of Electro House.</ref><ref name="HubPages Style Music">music2electro. "Electro House of Style Music". HubPages.
Many people want to find out exactly where did this style of music emerge from. There isn't any factual evidence to prove anything. As with most music history, it isn't certain... It is noted that about ten years ago there was a large revolutionary time in electro music being mixed with pop. At the same time tech house was gaining popularity. When the two were mixed that is when Electro House came to be the way it is now. </ref> There is some debate within the electro community on how much these genres constitute electro.<ref name="softskull" /><ref>"Electro versus "electro" (electro house/pop/clash)". MetaFilter. Retrieved 2014-11-10.</ref>
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