Post-disco

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Post-disco is a term to describe an aftermath in popular music history c. late 1979–1986, imprecisely beginning with an unprecedented backlash against disco music in the United States, leading to civil unrest and a riot in Chicago known as the Disco Demolition Night on July 12, 1979, and indistinctly ending with the mainstream appearance of house music in the late 1980s.<ref name="shadow">Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Long Shadow - In praise of "in-between" periods in pop history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on 2-2-2009"</ref> Disco during its dying stage displayed an increasingly electronic character that soon served as a stepping stone to new wave, old-school hip hop, euro disco and was succeeded by an underground club music called hi-NRG, which was its direct continuation.

An underground movement of disco music, "stripped-down," and featuring "radically different sounds"<ref name=AMG1/> took place on the East Coast that "was neither disco and neither R&B,"<ref name=Kellmann>Kellman, Andy. "Unlimited Touch" artist biography. Retrieved 2014-10-01</ref> This scene known as post-disco<ref group="nb">Various terms to describe the sound of what seemed to be post-disco were introduced, such as, but not limited to, "dance," "club music," "R&B," and "disco." The last, however, become an unfashionable term, hence the increasing use of "dance"<ref>Rodgers, Nile (2011). Le Freak: An Upside Down Story of Family, Disco, and Destiny. Random House LLC. p. 42. ISBN 0679644032. By now “dance” was a loaded word for me. The Disco Sucks backlash had given me a post-traumatic-stress–like disorder, and I'd vowed not to write any songs with that word in them for a long time. I was shamed out of using a word—“dance.“ </ref><ref>Goldschmitt, Kariann Elaine (2004). Foreign bodies: innovation, repetition, and corporeality in electronic dance music (Digitized 13 Sep 2010). University of California, San Diego. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. </ref> vis-à-vis the word "disco."</ref> catering to New York metropolitan area, was initially led by urban contemporary artists partially in response to the over-commercialization and artistic downfall of disco culture. Developed from the rhythm and blues sound as perfected by Parliament-Funkadelic,<ref name=Parliament/> the electronic side of disco, dub music techniques, and other genres. Post-disco was typified by New York City music groups like "D" Train<ref name=Kellmann/> and Unlimited Touch<ref name=Kellmann/> who followed a more urban approach while others, like Material<ref>Material. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-10-01</ref> and ESG,<ref>ESG. Rovi Corporation Retrieved 2014-10-01</ref> a more experimental one. Post-disco was, like disco, singles-driven market<ref name=AMG1/> controlled mostly by independent record companies that generated a cross-over chart success all through the early-to-mid 1980s. Most creative control was in the hands of record producers and club DJs<ref name=AMG1/> which was a trend that outlived the dance-pop era.

Other musical styles that emerged in the post-disco era include electropop, dance-pop,<ref name=Slant>Slant Magazine | Music | 100 Greatest Dance Songs. Retrieved on 2-2-2009</ref><ref>Smay, David & Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the Naked Truth: The Dark History of Prepubescent Pop, from the Banana Splits to Britney Spears: "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's what they call it now — Post-Disco, post-new wave and incorporating elements of both." Feral House: Publisher, p. 327. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref> boogie,<ref name=AMG1/> and Italo disco and led to the development of the early alternative dance,<ref name=AMG1/> club-centered house<ref name=Slant/><ref>Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. House music is a form of post-disco dance music made popular in the mid-1980s in Chicago clubs..." </ref><ref name=DancingMachines>Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste". Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. 25 (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. "In terms of its song repertoire, DDR is rooted in disco and post-disco forms such as techno and house. But DDR can be read as the ultimate postmodern dance experience because the game displays various forms of dance imagery without stylistic or historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. 62,...) </ref><ref>Riley, Marcus & Trotter, Lee Ann (Apr 1, 2014) Chicago House Music Legend Frankie Knuckles Dead at 59 WMAQ-TV. NBCUniversal. Retrieved 2014-04-24</ref> and techno music.<ref name=DancingMachines/><ref>Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. Glossary: techno – post-disco dance music in which most or all of the sounds are electronically generated </ref><ref>AllMusic - explore music... House: "House music grew out of the post-disco dance club culture of the early '80s." Retrieved on 12-27-2009</ref><ref>St. John, Graham George Michael, (2004), Rave Culture and Religion, p. 50, Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., "[sic] house music. As a post-disco party music, house features a repetitive 4/4 beat and a speed of 120 or more beats per minute..."</ref><ref>"Though it makes sense to classify any form of dance music made since disco as post-disco, each successive movement has had its own characteristics to make it significantly different from the initial post-disco era, whether it's dance-pop or techno or trance." — Allmusic</ref>

Characteristics

Synthesizers played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.

Drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers were either partly or entirely dominant in a composition or mixed up with various acoustic instruments, depending on the artist.

Darryl Payne arguing about the minimal approach of post-disco
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The main force in post-disco was mainly the 12" single format and short-lived collaborations (many of them one-hit wonders) while indie record producers were instrumental in the musical direction of what the scene was headed to. The music that mostly catered to dance and urban audiences later managed to influence more popular and mainstream acts like Madonna, New Order or Pet Shop Boys.<ref name="shadow"/>

Musical elements

The music tended to be technology-centric, keyboard-laden, melodic, with funk-oriented bass lines (often performed on a Minimoog), synth riffs, dub music aesthetics, and background jazzy or blues-y piano layers.<ref name="shadow"/><ref name=AMG1>"Explore music...Genre: Post-disco". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-04-11. </ref><ref>Kellman, Andy (review). Anthology (1995) - Aurra. Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2014-04-24.</ref><ref>Nelson, George (2003). The Death of Rhythm and Blues. Penguin. ISBN 1101160675. Synthesizers of every description, drum machines, and plain old electric keyboards began making MFSB and other human rhythm sessions nonessential to the recording process. For producers, a control-oriented bunch, this was heaven. No more rehearsals. Low session fees. An artist who envisioned himself as a future Stevie Wonder—the first great one-man synthesizer band—could express his creativity in the basement or the bathroom. </ref><ref name=deo>"Walsh, Fintan (June, 2012): Eumir Deodato and the exploration of Post-Disco". The 405 magazine (UK). Retrieved 2012-06-30. </ref> For strings and brass sections, synthesizer sounds were preferred to the lush orchestration heard on many disco tracks, although such arrangements would later resurface in some house music.[citation needed] Soulful female vocals, however, remained an essence of post-disco.

Term usage

Bridging the so-called death of disco and the birth of house, all this early-to-mid-'80s music lacks a name beyond drably functional and neutral terms like "dance" or "club music.”
          – Simon Reynolds, SPIN magazine<ref>Simon Reynolds, Slate, p. May 29, 2009</ref>

The term "post-disco" was used as early as 1984 by Cadence Magazine when defining post-disco soul as "disco without the loud bass-drum thump."<ref>Cadence Magazine. 10: 56. 1984.  Missing or empty |title= (help)</ref> New York Magazine used the word in an article appearing in the December 1985 issue; it was Gregory Hines's introduction of post-disco and electronic funk to Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has never heard this kind of music."<ref>New York Magazine (New York Media, LLC). 18: 121. 2 December 1985. ISSN 0028-7369.  Missing or empty |title= (help)</ref> AllMusic states that the term denotes a music genre in the era between the indistinct "end" of disco music and the equally indistinct emergence of house music.<ref name=AMG1/>

History

Background events

Disco music backlash had started around 1977.

United States

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Shortly after the "Disco Sucks" movement of disco bashing throughout the United States, American radio stations began to pay attention to other popular formats of music such as reggae, punk rock or new wave while top mainstream labels and record companies like Casablanca, TK Records or RSO went bankrupt. Since disco music had been on the way of [its] electronic progression, it split itself into subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, Italo disco and boogie.<ref name=Chicagodisco>Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc (92). 18 Jul 1980. ISSN 0006-2510. Disco Business > An Art Unto Itself: Programming of Mobiles - Chicago  Missing or empty |title= (help)</ref><ref name="shadow"/><ref name=Guards/> The last one is closely associated with post-disco more than any other offshoots of post-disco.<ref name=dam_funk>Serwer, Jesse (2009) XLR8R: Jesse Serwer in an interview with Dam-Funk. Retrieved on 2-2-2010.</ref><ref name=Essential>Webber, Stephen (2007). DJ Skills: The Essential Guide to Mixing and Scratching. Focal Press, 2007. p. 25. ISBN 0-240-52069-6. </ref>

Brazilian record producer and fusion jazz pioneer Eumir Deodato, well aware of current trends in American underground music, turned around the career of a failing funk music group Kool & the Gang by adopting and pursuing a light pop–post-disco sound that not only revitalized the band's image but also turned out to be the most successful hits in their entire career.<ref name=deo/> B. B. & Q. Band (Capitol) and Change (Atlantic) acts' creator Jacques Fred Petrus, an overseas hi-NRG Italo disco music record producer, reflects on his decision to shift from conventional disco music to post-disco "[our] sound changed to more of a funky dance/R&B style to reflect the times."<ref name=Ladisco/> French-born songwriting duo Henri Belolo and Jacques Morali, creators of the successful Village People act, moved their former disco act Ritchie Family to RCA Victor to release their next album co-produced by funk musician Fonzi Thornton and Petrus, I'll Do My Best, which mirrors their radical musical shift.<ref name=Ladisco/> On the West Coast, especially in California, a different approach lead to a different sound. Dick Griffey and Leon Sylvers III of SOLAR Records, who pioneered their own signature sound, produced Ohio-based group Lakeside's album Rough Riders which already displayed these new trends and, "instrumentally demonstrates economic arrangements (featuring brass, keyboards and guitar)," as noted by Billboard, praising the album.<ref>"Billboard's Top Album Picks (1979). Billboard SPECIAL SURVEY For Week Ending 10/13/79". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc (91). Oct 13, 1979. ISSN 0006-2510. </ref> A watershed album of post-disco was Michael Jackson's Off The Wall, produced by Quincy Jones, which helped establish a direction of R&B/dance music and influenced many young producers who were interested in this kind of new music.<ref name=DanceClassic>The '80s Producers. Danceclassics.net.</ref>

Other examples of early American artists drawing from post-disco are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie.<ref name=Bill/>

Europe

Disco in Europe remained relatively untouched by the events in the U.S., decreasing only on Britain, but this was mostly because of the emergence of the "New Wave" and "New Romantic" movements around 1981,<ref>Collins, Nick; Schedel, Margaret; Wilson, Scott (2013). Electronic Music. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 1107244544. </ref> and continued to flourish within the Italo disco scene although the interest for electronic music in general was indeed growing.

United Kingdom

Unlike in the United States, where anti-disco backlash generated prominent effect on general perception of disco music, in Britain, the "New Music" movement initially drew heavily from disco music (although this association would be airbrushed out by the end of 1979) and took many elements from American post-disco and other genres, thus creating a characteristic scene.<ref name=Bill>Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc (94). 19 Jun 1982. ISSN 0006-2510. The Music Steps Beyond Disco: Where The Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock Generates First Bevy of Crossover Stars  Missing or empty |title= (help)</ref> M's 1979 "Pop Muzik" was a prime example of this, topping the charts at both sides of the Atlantic that year. According to Billboard, American post-disco was merely a crossover of different genres, while focusing on the electronic and R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funk was a crucial element of the British post-disco scene that generated musicians like Chaz Jankel, Central Line or Imagination.

1980s: Golden age

This section summary shows commercially successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco movement.

Compare "Open Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) by Kool & The Gang, "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind & Fire, "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1982) by Evelyn "Champagne" King and "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" (1976) with "Give It Up" (1982) by KC & the Sunshine Band.

Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance <ref name=Kool_AMG/> U.S. R&B <ref name=Kool_AMG/> U.S. Pop <ref name=Kool_AMG>Kool & the Gang: Billboard SinglesDavid Bowie: Billboard SinglesSOS Band: Billboard SinglesIndeep: Billboard SinglesEarth, Wind & Fire: Billboard SinglesMichael Jackson: Billboard SinglesBilly Ocean: Billboard SinglesThe Pointer Sisters: Billboard SinglesThe Whispers: Billboard SinglesMadonna: Billboard SinglesAmerica: Billboard Singles by Allmusic. Retrieved on August 24, 2014.</ref> U.S. M.R. <ref name=Kool_AMG/> U.K. Pop<ref>Search song on EveryHit.com database</ref>
1979 "I Wanna Be Your Lover"<ref>Allmusic: List of Post-Disco songs. Rovi Corporation. Accessed 06-02-20129</ref> Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
1980 "Celebration"<ref>[1]. Songfacts.com about Kool & The Gang trivia informations. Retrieved on 5. 5. 2009</ref> De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
"He's So Shy"<ref>Lamb, Bill (12 April 2006). "Top 10 Tracks To Download This Week April 12, 2006 – A Pointer Sisters Tribute". About.com. Retrieved 7 July 2014. This sweetly sexy come-on was a perfect post-disco r&b smash landing at #3 on the pop chart. </ref> Planet The Pointer Sisters #26 #10 #3
"And the Beat Goes On"<ref name="SW">Ro, Ronin (1999). Have Gun Will Travel: The Spectacular Rise and Violent Fall of Death Row Records. Broadway Books. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-3854-9135-8. SOLAR (...), which grew out of an association between promoter Griffey and Soul Train host Don Cornelius, released a string of post-disco hits that included Shalamar's "The Second Time Around" and the Whispers' "And the Beat Goes On." </ref> SOLAR The Whispers #1 #1 #19 #2
1981 "Let's Groove"<ref>Soul > LP > Earth Wind & Fire: Raise!: Earth Wind & Fire hits the 80s -- and never misses a beat! Turns out that the group's older style of jazzy funk was a perfect fit for the boogie-styled rhythms of the post-disco era". Dusty Groove. Retrieved on August 12, 2009.</ref> Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
"Get Down on It" De-Lite Kool & the Gang #4 #10 #3
"Pull Up to the Bumper"<ref>http://www.electronicbeats.net/artist/grace-jones/</ref> Island Records Grace Jones #2 #5 #12
1982 "Everybody"<ref name=madonnapostdisco>"Holiday, Celebrate: Madonna's First Album Turns 30" (from truthabouthmusic.com) Retrieved on July 08, 2014.</ref> Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #3 #107
"Forget Me Nots"<ref>Lester, Paul (11 March 2014). "Yumi Zouma (No 1,717)". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2014. Patrice Rushen's postdisco classic Forget Me Nots </ref> Elektra Records Patrice Rushen #2 #4 #23 #8
"It's Raining Men"<ref>http://morningafter.gawker.com/oh-god-chaka-khan-what-are-you-doing-1699504778</ref> Columbia Records The Weather Girls #1 #34 #46 #2
"Last Night a DJ Saved My Life"<ref>Grow, Kory (May 2008). Revolver Magazine article: Why The Most Dangerous Band Of The Decade, True Norwegian, Black Metallers, Gorgoroth, Turned On Itself - "When the post-disco classic "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life" by early-'80s New York crew Indeep comes on, King asks what the singer means by the bizarre titular statement.". No. 68. ISSN 1527-408X.</ref> Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down"<ref>[2]. 70disco.com web. Re-retrieved on August 1, 2009</ref><ref>ShowArtist: Evelyn "Champagne" King. Disco-funk.co.uk. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.</ref> RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
"You Can Do Magic"<ref>"America - The Band, NYCB Theatre at Westbury". Westbury Music Fair. 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 

</ref> || Capitol || America || align=center | ― || align=center | ― || align=center | #8 || align=center | ― || align=center | #59

1983 "Holiday"<ref name=madonnapostdisco/> Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #25 #16 #2
"Give It Up"<ref>Hoffmann, W. Frank & Ferstler, Howard (2005). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound (Publication no. 2): "He [Harry Casey] briefly returned to the public eye billed as KC with the release of KC Ten (Meca 8301; 1984: #93), featuring the post-disco single 'Give It Up' (Meca 1001; 1984; #18), before fading back into obscurity". p. 566. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".</ref> Meca KC #18 #1
"Billie Jean"<ref name=JacksonBowie /> Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Caribbean Queen"<ref>Promis, Jose F. "Billy Ocean – Greatest Hits [Jive]". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 3 July 2014. </ref> Jive Billy Ocean #1 #1 #1 #6
"Let's Dance"<ref name=JacksonBowie>The Eighties Club: The Politics and Pop Culture of the 1980s: "On the dance floor, David Bowie's "Let's Dance" and Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" defined the post-disco beat." Retrieved on August 11, 2009.</ref> EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now"<ref name=OneHit>One Hit Wonder Center - One-Hit Wonder Music of the 50's~90's: "There are also tracks to represent the rise of post-disco club/dance trend, such as Laid Back's "White Horse", New Edition's "Cool It Now", and Timex Social Club's " Rumors" ". Retrieved on August 12, 2009.</ref> MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat"<ref name=DrBeat>Morales, Ed (2002). Living in Spanglish: the search for Latino identity in America: ""With their group, Miami Sound Machine, ... "Doctor Beat," manages to fuse elements of Latin percussion with the electric hass heats of the post-disco era". p. 244. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref> Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
"I'm So Excited"<ref>"Youngest Pointer Sister Loses Cancer Battle at 52". IMDb.com, Inc. 13 April 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  "The Pointer Sisters (...) really found their niche in the post-disco world, recording smooth tunes like "Slow Hand" and dance floor fillers such as "I'm So Excited.""</ref> Planet The Pointer Sisters #28 #46 #9 #11
1985 "Into the Groove"<ref>MADONNA - "Into The Groove": An Overview (from freakytrigger.co.uk/) Retrieved on July 08, 2014.</ref> Sire, Warner Bros. Madonna #1 #19 #1
"Chain Reaction"<ref>http://www.allmusic.com/song/chain-reaction-mt0028426929</ref> RCA Records Diana Ross #7 #85 #66 #1
"Object of My Desire" Elektra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors"<ref name=OneHit/> Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
"Ain't Nothin' Goin' on But the Rent"<ref>http://articles.latimes.com/1999/feb/08/news/mn-6142</ref> Polydor Records Gwen Guthrie #1 #1 #42 #5
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You"<ref name=DrBeat /> Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5 #16

2000s: Post-disco revival

During the late 1990s and throughout the 2000s, electronic and, especially, house musicians were influenced by post-disco. Some of these musicians are: Daft Punk, a French house music group, adopted elements of post-disco, disco and synth-pop into Discovery.<ref>(2001) CMJ New Music Monthly - Best New Music - Daft Punk (Discovery): "Although it's only fair to credit Chicago with the post-disco dance style's paternal rights, the French [Daft Punk] have (at the very least) earned covered weekend privilegies." Publisher: CMJ Network, Inc. No. 93. p. 71. ISSN 1074-6978</ref> Another artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer.<ref>Paoletta, Michael (1999). Billboard Magazine: Reviews & Previews: Spotlight (Les Rythmes Digitales - Darkdancer): "[about funky and British synth-pop] two musical styles steeped in the post-disco/electro scene of New York in the early '80s". p. 30. ISSN 0006-2510</ref> Canadian music group Chromeo debuted in 2004 with the album She's in Control.<ref name=CMJII>Juzwiak, Rich (2004). "Reviews >>> Chromeo - She's In Control". CMJ New Music Monthly. 64 (120): 50. ISSN 1074-6978. </ref> Similar Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- and electro-influenced album released in 2009.<ref name="guardian">MacPherson, Alex (2009-11-26). "Dam Funk - Toeachizown (review)". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2011-08-30. </ref> Another band called Escort, who hails from New York City, surfaced on the post-disco and post-punk revival scenes around 2006. The story about Escort appeared on New York Times in November 2011.<ref>New York Times (November 2011) Jessica Reedy's Album, 'From the Heart' / Escort. "Escort has been hovering around New York City's postpunk and post-disco revival scenes for years, and always felt a bit out of place." Retrieved on 2012-16-01.</ref>

Contemporary compilation albums featuring post-disco and electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4).<ref>[Post-disco at AllMusic The Perfect Beats, Vol. 1] by Allmusic. Retrieved on 1-28-2010</ref> Another compilation series are Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) and the mixed-up album titled The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams.

Pioneers and followers

"Thanks To You" and "Don't Make Me Wait" came out and started the whole dub thing in disco.<ref>Tech Noir - Disco > Shep Pettibone: Shep Pettibone in an interview with Steven Harvey. Retrieved on 12 26 2009</ref> — Shep Pettibone

Particular psychedelic soul artists like Sly and the Family Stone liked to push the boundaries of conventional music by employing what was to be a precursor to synthesizer, electronic organ. Multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder was one of early artists venturing into the realms of analog synthesizer after impressed by the work of T.O.N.T.O. Expanding Head Band, an influential multinational electronic music duo of sound designers: "How great it is at a time when technology and the science of music is at its highest point of evolution, to have the reintroduction of two of the most prominent forefathers in this music be heard again. It can be said of this work that it parallels with good wine. As it ages it only gets better with time. A toast to greatness... a toast to Zero Time... forever." With an increasing growth of personalized synthesizers on the market they were becoming more commercially available and easy-to-use, especially those produced by Roland Corporation. One of their first users was an cutting-edge artist George Clinton and his Parliament-Funkadelic collective project. Funk rhythms, psychedelic guitars, synthetic bass-rich lines, the particularly melodic endeavor and music minimalism of P-Funk. Brooklyn Transit Express member Kashif, noted for his use of bass synthesizer<ref name=Kash>Kashif > Singer, Songwriter & Producer. NABFEME +content courtesy of Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2014-04-24.</ref> during the group's tour, later went solo as a record producer and began crafting funk-influenced songs for Evelyn "Champagne" King that shown a minimalism-akin approach, the disregard of disco music arrangements, and affiliation to the method of "one-man band" previously paved through by Wonder.<ref name=Kash/> Other spheres of influence include the move from pioneering DJs and record producers to release alternative mixes on the same single, so-called dub mixes. DJ Larry Levan implemented elements of dub music in his productions and mixes for various post-disco artists, including his own group The Peech Boys. Musically, there was a search for out-of-mainstream music to derive new ideas from, most commonly blues, and other styles like reggae, etc. were also incorporated.

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's "You're the One for Me", The Peech Boys' "Don't Make Me Wait" — all these songs and its attributes and trends of post-disco later influenced a new "never-before-heard" music style. The House music.<ref>Cheeseman, Phil (1989). The History of House music. fantazia.org.uk | Artandpopculture. Retrieved on 2-19-2010</ref><ref name=Extas>Reynolds, Simon (Jul 16, 1999). Generation ecstasy: into the world of techno and rave culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 35. ISBN 0-415-92373-5. "The band's -Peech Boys- ambient-tinged post-disco epics like "Don't Make Me Wait" and "Life is Something Special" are notable for their cavernous reverberance and dub-deep bass. Peech Boys were on the cutting edge of the early-eighties New York electro-funk sound like D-Train, Vicky D, Rocker's Revenge, Frances [sic] Joli, and Sharon Redd, labels like West End and Prelude, and producers like Arthur Baker, Francois Kevorkian, and John "Jellybean" Benitez. </ref>

The new post-disco sound was flourishing among predominately New York City record companies, including West End Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, SAM Records, and others.<ref name=Extas/><ref name=ElectroFunk>"Electro Funk Roots: The Building Blocks of Boogie (history)". electrofunkroots.co.uk. Retrieved August 11, 2009. </ref> Most of them were independently owned and had their own distribution<ref>Charnas, Dan (2011). The Big Payback: The History of the Business of Hip-Hop. Penguin. p. ??. ISBN 1101568119. </ref> but some particular mainstream labels, notably RCA Records,<ref name=Ladisco>Aerna, James (2013). First Ladies of Disco: 32 Stars Discuss the Era and Their Singing Careers. Penguin. pp. 186–87. ISBN 1476603324. </ref> were too, responsible for popularizing and capitalizing on the new sound.

Timeline

Although there is no exact point when post-disco started, many synthpop and electronic musicians of that time continued to enhance the raw minimalist sound, while focusing on synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As noted by Payne, drum machines also played an important part in the urban-oriented music in general.<ref name=Bill/>

# DJhistory.com] - Disco's revenge: "[sic] But by the turn of the eighties, he was experimenting with drum machines and synthesizers and, like François Kevorkian around the same time, forging a new electronic, post-disco sound". Retrieved on 1-4-2010.</ref><ref>[Post-disco at AllMusic allmusic] > ((( Bobby Orlando - Overview ))): "Genre: Electronic, Styles: Hi-NRG, Club/Dance, R&B, Post-disco". Retrieved on 12-27-2009.</ref><ref name=PD_list/><ref name=PD_list>[Post-disco at AllMusic "Explore music...Top Artists (under Post-disco)"] Check |url= value (help). Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-04-11. </ref><ref name=Parliament>Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving bands set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk groups of the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.</ref><ref>Toop, David (1984). The Rap Attack: African Jive to New York Hip-Hop. Pluto Press. p. 93. Kurtis Blow may not have been 100 per cent proof Bronx hip hop, but his early records helped set the style in post-disco dance music. </ref><ref name=GuideR&B>Bogdanov, Vladimir (2003). <span />All Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul<span />. p. 709. ISBN 978-0-87930-744-8. [Unlimited Touch] weren't disco, and they weren't exactly straight-up R&B; like their Prelude labelmates D Train, Unlimited Touch combined the two forms into what is often referred to as post-disco. </ref><ref name=GuideR&B/><ref>Heyliger, M., Music - Help - Web - Review - A State-of-the-Art Pop Album (Thriller by Michael Jackson): "Not many artists could pull off such a variety of styles (funk, post-disco, rock, easy listening, ballads) back then...". Retrieved on August 12, 2009</ref>
1977-
1979

While disco music was in its heyday, the horn and string sections were a main component of disco and pop songs. This sound is also called disco orchestration. However, some of the musicians and producers dropped the lavish sound of orchestra completely, which attributed a new direction of dance music.

  • Few international examples, including French music project Black Devil Disco Club, French musician Cerrone and Belgian group Telex.
  • Parliament-Funkadelic in the United States. They are known for heavily use of bass and "regular" synthesizers and inventing the P-Funk style.
1980-
1981

After the success of Quincy Jones-produced album Off the Wall and other semi-mainstream urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, other disco music groups either dissolved or adapted the new sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, Wind & Fire, and Shalamar in the U.S.; Nick Straker Band, and Freeez in UK). Other musicians influenced by post-disco include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, and George Duke.

1982

Golden age post-disco era, where post-disco sound entered mainstream. However most of the musicians were mostly successful on the other charts, beside Billboard Hot 100.

This era also spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur L and Was (Not Was).

The most significant post-disco album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, which also became the most best-selling album of all time.<ref name="top-selling">Anderson, Kyle (July 20, 2009). "Michael Jackson's Thriller Set To Become Top-Selling Album Of All Time". MTV. MTV Network. Retrieved December 29, 2009. </ref> Larry Levan and the NYC Peech Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't Make Me Wait". New bands and musicians of the era appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited Touch.

1983-
1984

During this era, post-disco was at its highest peak. Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut album was released, which was produced by Reggie Lucas of Mtume and Jellybean, another producers of this movement.

It also began to interfere with garage house and freestyle music, thus successfully shaping post-disco into electro. This change could be also heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed movies like Beat Street and Breakin'.

1985-
1987

During this era, post-disco had been dissolved in various music fields and scenes, including

As the post-disco reached its climax, overdubbing techniques as recorded by Peech Boys and other early-1980s artists were almost omitted by then and replaced by synthpop variants instead. The movement survived as a post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex Social Club, Starpoint and Miami Sound Machine.

Legacy

Script error: No such module "Multiple image". The 1980s post-disco sounds also inspired many Norwegian dance music producers.<ref>Ham, Anthony & Roddis, Miles and Lundgren, Kari (2008). Norway: Discover Norway - (The Culture) Interview with Bernt Erik Pedersen, music editor, Dagsavisen: "A lot of current dance music producers are influenced by the post-disco sound of the early 80s". Publisher: Lonely Planet Publications. p. 53. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref> Some rappers such as Ice Cube or EPMD built their careers on funk-oriented post-disco music (they were inspired for example by dance-floor favorites like Zapp and Cameo).<ref>Light, Alan (November 1993). V I B E - Funk Masters article: "It's no wonder that rappers such as EPMD and Ice Cube, striving for that perfect mind-body fusion, have built careers out of fragments from these fathers of funk (as well as the post-disco wave they inspired - dance-floor favourites like Zapp and Cameo)". p. 51?, ISSN 1070-4701</ref> Also Sean "Puffy" Combs has been influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco music in an indirect way.<ref>Schoonmaker, Trevor (2003). Fela: from West Africa to West Broadway: "Puffy's consistent pilfering of pop coffers from a certain time period shows undoubtedly that he is influenced by the post-disco R&B bounce of the late 1970s and early 1980s". Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref>

Related genres

Boogie

Main article: Boogie (genre)

Boogie (or electro-funk)<ref name=Extas/><ref name=pop>"DJ Spinna: The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams (by Andrew Martin)". Popmatters. Retrieved 2011-12-18. </ref> is a post-disco subgenre with way more funk influences that had a minor exposure in the early to mid-1980s. Sean P. described it as "largely been ignored, or regarded as disco's poor cousin — too slow, too electronic, too R&B... too black, even."<ref name=booga>"VA - Destination: Boogie (2006) review". AMG. Retrieved 2011-08-10. </ref>

Dance-rock

Main article: Dance-rock

Another post-disco movement is merely connected with post-punk/no wave genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. An example of this "post-disco" is Gina X's "No G.D.M."<ref>The Fader. University of Michigan: 38. 2002 https://books.google.com/books?id=Y2-fAAAAMAAJ&q=No+GDM+gina+X++post-disco+++The+Fader&dq=No+GDM+gina+X++post-disco+++The+Fader. [the] classic post-disco track "No GDM" by Gina X  Missing or empty |title= (help)</ref> and artists like Liquid Liquid, Polyrock,<ref>Fink, Robert (2005). Repeating Ourselves: American Minimal Music As Cultural Practice. University of California Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-520-24550-4. </ref> Dinosaur L, and Disco Not Disco [2000] compilation album.<ref>Albums "Disco Not Disco [2000]" Check |url= value (help). Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-10. </ref><ref>Battaglia, Andy (2008). "Album Reviews: VA - Disco Not Disco (Post-Punk, Electro & Leftfield Disco Classics)". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 2009-08-13. </ref> This movement also connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music in America defines that genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion."<ref>Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music in America: And the Beat Goes On. Cengage Learning. p. 359. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. </ref> Campbell also cited Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as umbrella term used by various DJs in the 1980s.<ref name=DanceRock>"Explore music... Genre: Dance-Rock". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-12. </ref>

Dance-pop

Main article: Dance-pop

Dance-pop is a dance-oriented pop music that appeared slightly after the demise of disco and the first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. One of the first dance-pop songs were "Last Night a D.J. Saved My Life" by Indeep and "Love Come Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas the latter crossed over to Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, while peaking at number 17 on the pop chart in 1982.<ref>Template:BillboardID/E/Template:BillboardEncode/E/chart Evelyn Champagne King - Chart History at Billboard. Nielsen Co. Retrieved 2012-09-01.</ref> Another crossover post-disco song was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, peaking at number 45 on the Hot 100 in 1983.<ref name=Juicy>""Sugar Free" review by Ed Hogan". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-08-31. </ref> Same year also saw the release of Madonna's eponymous album that incorporated post-disco, urban and club sounds. British variation of dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, was more influenced by house and hi-NRG and sometimes was labeled as "eurobeat".<ref>Classic Tracks: Rick Astley ‘Never Gonna Give You Up’ – Sound On Sound. Retrieved on 2 July 2010.</ref>

Italo disco

Main article: Italo disco

Italo disco is a disco subgenre, influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG, electronic rock, and European music. Originally music mostly played by Italian musicians, but it soon made its way to Canada and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, while New York-based Bobby Orlando was located abroad.<ref name=AMG1/>

Non-exhaustive list of artists

Prominent record labels

Compilations

Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: A Collection of Classics
(mixed by Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation
2004–2009 VA – Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco Not Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night Dubbin'
(mixed by Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation
2009 VA – The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams
(compiled by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's Gonna Getcha: '80s New York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also

Notes

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References

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