Psychedelic rock

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Psychedelic rock is a diverse style of rock music inspired, influenced, or representative of psychedelic culture, which is centred around perception-altering hallucinogenic drugs. Psychedelic rock is intended to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. Many psychedelic groups differ in style, and the label is often used indiscriminately.<ref name="FOOTNOTEHicks200063">Hicks 2000, p. 63.</ref>

Originating in the mid-1960s among British and American musicians, the sounds of psychedelic rock invokes three core effects of LSD: depersonalization, dechronicization, and dynamization; all of which detach the user from reality.<ref name="FOOTNOTEHicks200063">Hicks 2000, p. 63.</ref> Musically, the effects may be represented via novelty studio tricks, electronic or non-Western instrumentation, disjunctive song structures, and extended instrumental segments.<ref name="FOOTNOTEHicks200063–66">Hicks 2000, pp. 63–66.</ref> Some of the earlier 1960s psychedelic rock musicians were based in folk, jazz, and the blues, while others showcased an explicit Indian classical influence called "raga rock". In the 1960s, there existed two main variants of the genre: the whimsical British pop-psychedelia and the harder American West Coast acid rock. While "acid rock" is sometimes deployed interchangeably with the term "psychedelic rock", it also refers more specifically to the heavier and more extreme ends of the genre.

The peak years of psychedelic rock were between 1966 and 1969, with milestone events including the 1967 Summer of Love and the 1969 Woodstock Rock Festival, becoming an international musical movement associated with a widespread counterculture before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas. The genre bridged the transition from early blues and folk-based rock to progressive rock and hard rock, and as a result contributed to the development of sub-genres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia. Template:Toclimit

Definition

For more details on this topic, see Psychedelic music.
See also: Acid rock

As a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, and improvisation.<ref name="FOOTNOTEPrownNewquist199748">Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 48.</ref> Common features include:

The term "psychedelic" was first coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy.<ref>N. Murray, Aldous Huxley: A Biography (Hachette, 2009), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 419.</ref> As the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco, the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music<ref>"Logical Outcome of fifty years of art", LIFE, 9 September 1966, p. 68.</ref> and were being widely used by 1967.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis20038–9">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 8–9.</ref> The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are often used interchangeably,<ref name="FOOTNOTEBrowneBrowne20018">Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8.</ref> but acid rock may be distinguished as a more extreme variation that was heavier, louder, relied on long jams,<ref name=AllmusicAcidRock>Psychedelic rock at AllMusic</ref> focused more directly on LSD, and made greater use of distortion.<ref>Eric V. d. Luft, Die at the Right Time!: A Subjective Cultural History of the American Sixties (Gegensatz Press, 2009), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 173.</ref>

Original psychedelic era

Main article: Psychedelic era

1960–65: Precursors and influences

The Beatles working in the studio with their producer, George Martin, circa 1965

In the popular music of the early 1960s, it was common for producers, songwriters, and engineers to freely experiment with musical form, arrangements, unnatural reverb, and other sound effects. Some of the best known examples are Phil Spector's Wall of Sound production formula and Joe Meek's use of homemade electronics for acts like the Tornados.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBlake200945">Blake 2009, p. 45.</ref> XTC's Andy Partridge interprets the music of psychedelic groups as a "grown-up" version of children's novelty records, believing that many acts were trying to emulate those records that they grew up with; "They use exactly the same techniques—sped-up bits, slowed-down bits, too much echo, too much reverb, that bit goes backwards. ... There was no transition to be made. You go from things like 'Flying Purple People Eater' to 'I Am the Walrus'. They go hand-in-hand."<ref name="FOOTNOTEPartridgeBernhardt2016">Partridge & Bernhardt 2016.</ref> Music critic Richie Unterberger says that attempts to "pin down" the first psychedelic record are therefore "nearly as elusive as trying to name the first rock & roll record". Some of the "far-fetched claims" include the instrumental "Telstar" (produced by Meek for the Tornados in 1962) and the Dave Clark Five's "massively reverb-laden" "Any Way You Want It" (1964).<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 1322.</ref> The first mention of LSD on a rock record was the Gamblers' 1960 surf instrumental "LSD 25".<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis20037">DeRogatis 2003, p. 7.</ref><ref group="nb">Their keyboardist, Bruce Johnston, would go on to join the Beach Boys in 1965. He would recall: "[LSD is] something I've never thought about and never done."<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis20037">DeRogatis 2003, p. 7.</ref></ref> A 1962 single by The Ventures, "The 2000 Pound Bee", issued forth the buzz of a distorted, "fuzztone" guitar, and the quest into "the possibilities of heavy, transistorised distortion" and other effects, like improved reverb and echo began in earnest on London's fertile rock 'n' roll scene.<ref name=":0">Power, Martin (2014). Hot Wired Guitar: The Life of Jeff Beck. books.google.com: Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-1-78323-386-1. </ref> By 1964 fuzztone could be heard on singles by P.J. Proby,<ref name=":0" /> and the Beatles had employed feedback in "I Feel Fine", their 6th consecutive No. 1 hit in the UK.<ref>Womack, Kenneth (2017). The Beatles Encyclopedia: Everything Fab Four. books.google.com: Greenwood. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-44084-426-3. </ref>

American folk singer Bob Dylan was a massive influence on mid 1960s rock music. He led directly to the creation of folk rock and the psychedelic rock musicians that followed, and his lyrics were a touchstone for the psychedelic songwriters of the late 1960s.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis200387, 242">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 87, 242.</ref> Virtuoso sitarist Ravi Shankar had begun in 1956 a mission to bring Indian classical music to the West, inspiring jazz, classical and folk musicians; and by the mid-1960s, a generation of young rock musicians who would make raga rock<ref>Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. books.google.com: Continuum Books. pp. 142, forward. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5. </ref> part of the psychedelic rock aesthetic and one of the many intersecting cultural motifs of the era.<ref>Bellman, pp. 294-295</ref> Meanwhile, in British folk, blues, drugs, jazz and eastern influences blended in the early 1960s work of Davy Graham, who adopted modal guitar tunings to transpose Indian ragas and Celtic reels. Graham was a "profound influence" on Scottish folk virtuoso Bert Jansch and other pioneering guitarists across a spectrum of styles and genres in the mid-1960s.<ref>"How to Play Like DADGAD Pioneer Davey Graham". Guitar World. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-08-08. </ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEHope2005137">Hope 2005, p. 137.</ref><ref group="nb">According to Stewart Hope, Graham was "the key early figure ... Influential but without much commercial impact, Graham's mix of folk, blues, jazz, and eastern scales backed on his solo albums with bass and drums was a precursor to and ultimately an integral part of the folk rock movement of the later sixties. ... It would be difficult to underestimate Graham's influence on the growth of hard drug use in British counterculture."<ref>C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 137.</ref></ref> Jazz saxophonist and composer John Coltrane had a similar impact, as the exotic sounds on his albums My Favorite Things (1960) and A Love Supreme (1964), the latter influenced by the ragas of Shankar, were source material for guitar players and others looking to improvise or "jam".<ref>Hicks, Michael (1999). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic and Other Satisfactions. books.google.com: University of Illinois Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-252-02427-3. </ref>

1965: Formative psychedelic scenes and sounds

Main article: Psychedelia
"Swinging London", Carnaby Street, circa 1966.

According to music journalist Barry Miles: "Hippies didn't just pop up overnight, but 1965 was the first year in which a discernible youth movement began to emerge. Many of the key "psychedelic" rock bands formed this year."<ref name="FOOTNOTEMiles200526">Miles 2005, p. 26.</ref> On the West Coast, underground chemist Augustus Owsley Stanley III and Ken Kesey (along with his followers known as the "Merry Pranksters") helped thousands of people take uncontrolled trips at Kesey's "Acid Tests" and in the new psychedelic dance halls. In Britain, Michael Hollingshead opened the World Psychedelic Centre and Beat Generation poets Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Gregory Corso read at the Royal Albert Hall. Miles adds: "The readings acted as a catalyst for underground activity in London, as people suddenly realized just how many like-minded people there were around. This was also the year that London began to blossom into colour with the opening of the Granny Takes a Trip and Hung On You clothes shops."<ref name="FOOTNOTEMiles200526">Miles 2005, p. 26.</ref> Thanks to media coverage, use of LSD became widespread.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMiles200526">Miles 2005, p. 26.</ref><ref group="nb">The growth of underground culture in Britain was facilitated by the emergence of alternative weekly publications like IT (International Times) and OZ magazine which featured psychedelic and progressive music together with the counterculture lifestyle, which involved long hair, and the wearing of wild shirts from shops like Mr Fish, Granny Takes a Trip and old military uniforms from Carnaby Street (Soho) and Kings Road (Chelsea) boutiques.<ref>P. Gorman, The Look: Adventures in Pop & Rock Fashion (Sanctuary, 2001), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref></ref>

Molly Longman of mic.com writes that, in terms of bridging the relationship between music and hallucinogens, the Beatles and the Beach Boys were the era's most pivotal acts.<ref name="Longman2016" /> In 1965, the Beach Boys' leader Brian Wilson started exploring song composition while under the influence of psychedelic drugs,<ref name="FOOTNOTECarlin200665">Carlin 2006, p. 65.</ref> and after being introduced to cannabis in 1964 by Dylan, members of the Beatles also began using LSD.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322–1323">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323.</ref> The considerable success enjoyed by these two bands allowed them the freedom to experiment with new technology over entire albums.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis200314–15">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 14–15.</ref> Producer George Martin, who was initially known as a specialist in comedy and novelty records,<ref>Pepper, Andrew (April 25, 2009). "Top 10 Life Changing Beatles Performances". Listverse.com. </ref> responded to the Beatles' requests by providing a range of studio tricks that ensured the band played a key role in the development of psychedelic effects,<ref name="FOOTNOTEHoffmann2016269">Hoffmann 2016, p. 269.</ref> including the drug-inspired drone on "Ticket to Ride" (1965).<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacDonald1998128">MacDonald 1998, p. 128.</ref>

Producer Terry Melcher in the studio with the Byrds' Gene Clark and David Crosby, 1965

In Unterberger's opinion, the Byrds, emerging from the Los Angeles folk rock scene, and the Yardbirds, from England's blues scene, were more responsible than the Beatles for "sounding the psychedelic siren".<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322–1323">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323.</ref> Drug use and attempts at psychedelic music moved out of acoustic folk-based music towards rock soon after the Byrds "plugged in" to electric guitars to produce a chart topping version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" in the summer of 1965, which became a folk rock standard.<ref>R. Unterberger, Eight Miles High: Folk-Rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock (London: Backbeat Books, 2003), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 1.</ref><ref name="unterberger">R. Unterberger. "Folk Rock: An Overview". Richieunterberger.com. Retrieved 15 March 2010. </ref><ref group="nb">In the song's lyric, the narrator requests: "Take me on a trip upon your magic swirling ship".<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis20038–9">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 8–9.</ref> Whether this was intended as a drug reference was unclear, but the line would enter rock music when the song was a hit for the Byrds later in the year.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis20038–9">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 8–9.</ref> Dylan indicated that he had smoked cannabis, but has denied using hard drugs. Nevertheless, his lyrics would continue to contain apparent drug references.</ref>

On the Yardbirds, Unterberger identifies lead guitarist Jeff Beck as having "laid the blueprint for psychedelic guitar", and the band for defining psychedelic rock's "manic eclecticism ... With their ominous minor key melodies, hyperactive instrumental breaks (called rave-ups), and use of Gregorian chants."<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 1322.</ref> All were present on Having a Rave-Up the Yardbirds U.S.-only album on which Beck "emerged as a full-fledged guitar hero", in the view of Guitar Player magazine.<ref>Guitar Player Magazine, editors (1989). Rock Guitar. books.google.com: Hal Leonard Corp. p. 114. ISBN 088188-908-3. </ref> "Heart Full of Soul" (June 1965) was a hit single driven by a distorted fuzz guitar riff by Beck made to simulate the drone of a sitar, which "carried the energy of a new scene"Template:According to whom and herald the arrival of new Eastern sounds.<ref name="FOOTNOTEEchard20175">Echard 2017, p. 5.</ref>

The Kinks would also incorporate guitars to mimic the drones of Indian music on "See My Friends", another Top 10 hit just a few weeks later.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBellman1998294–95">Bellman 1998, pp. 294–95.</ref> The Beatles' "Norwegian Wood" from the December 1965 album Rubber Soul marked the first released recording on which a member of a Western rock group played the sitar.<ref name="FOOTNOTELavezzoli2006173">Lavezzoli 2006, p. 173.</ref><ref group="nb">While Beck's influence had been Ravi Shankar records,<ref name="FOOTNOTEPower2014Ch.4: Fuzzbox Voodoo">Power 2014, Ch.4: Fuzzbox Voodoo.</ref> the Kinks' Ray Davies was inspired during a trip to Bombay, where he heard the early morning chanting of Indian fisherman.<ref>Rogan, Johnny (2015). Ray Davies: A Complicated Life. London: The Bodley Head. p. 239. ISBN 9781847923172. </ref> The Byrds were also delving into the raga sound in 1965, their "music of choice" being Coltrane and Shankar records.<ref>Lavezzoli, pg. 154</ref> That summer they would share their enthusiasm for Shankar's music and its transcendental qualities with George Harrison and John Lennon, during a group acid trip in Los Angeles.<ref>Thomsen, Graeme (2013). George Harrison. books.google.com: Omnibus Press. pp. Chapter 6. ISBN 0857128582. </ref> Though unfamiliar with Shankar and Indian classical music then, Harrison was intrigued, and soon hooked.<ref name="FOOTNOTEThomsen2013Ch.6: Rising Sun">Thomsen 2013, Ch.6: Rising Sun.</ref> The sitar and its attending spiritual philosophies would for him become a lifelong pursuit, as he and Shankar would "elevate Indian music and culture to mainstream consciousness".<ref name="FOOTNOTELavezzoli2006147">Lavezzoli 2006, p. 147.</ref></ref> The song is generally credited for sparking the sitar craze of the mid-1960s – a trend which fueled the growth raga rock as the India exotic became part of the essence of psychedelic rock.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBellman1998292">Bellman 1998, p. 292.</ref><ref group="nb">Previously, Indian instrumentation had been included in Ken Thorne's orchestral score for the band's Help! film soundtrack.<ref name="FOOTNOTELavezzoli2006173">Lavezzoli 2006, p. 173.</ref></ref> Rock author George Case recognises Rubber Soul as one of two Beatles albums that "marked the authentic beginning of the psychedelic era".<ref>Case, George (2010). Out of Our Heads: Rock 'n' Roll Before the Drugs Wore Off. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-87930-967-1. </ref><ref group="nb">The other being their August 1966 follow-up Revolver.<ref name="FOOTNOTECase201027">Case 2010, p. 27.</ref></ref>

A number of Californian-based folk acts followed the Byrds into folk-rock, bringing their psychedelic influences with them, to produce the "San Francisco Sound".<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322–1323">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323.</ref><ref group="nb"> Particularly prominentTemplate:According to whom products of the scene were The Grateful Dead (who had effectively become the house band of the Acid Tests),<ref name="FOOTNOTEHicks200060">Hicks 2000, p. 60.</ref> Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Charlatans, Moby Grape, Quicksilver Messenger Service and Jefferson Airplane.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322–1323">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323.</ref></ref> The San Francisco music scene developed in the city's Haight-Asbury neighborhood in 1965 at basement shows organised by Chet Helms of the Family Dog; and as Jefferson Airplane founder Marty Balin and investors opened The Matrix nightclub that summer and began booking his and other local bands, such as the Grateful Dead, The Steve Miller Band and Country Joe & the Fish.<ref>Yehling, Robert (22 February 2005). "The High Times Interview: Marty Balin". Balin Miracles. Archived from the original on 22 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2017. </ref> Helms and San Francisco Mime Troupe manager Bill Graham in fall of 1965 organised larger scale multi-media community events/benefits featuring the Airplane, the Diggers and poet Alan Ginsberg. By early 1966 Graham had secured booking at The Fillmore, and Helms at the Avalon Ballroom, where in-house psychedelic-themed light shows<ref name="FOOTNOTEMisiroglu201510">Misiroglu 2015, p. 10.</ref> replicated the visual effects of the psychedelic experience.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMcEneaney200945">McEneaney 2009, p. 45.</ref> Graham would become a major figure in the growth of psychedelic rock, attracting most of the major psychedelic rock bands of the day to The Fillmore.<ref name="FOOTNOTETalevski2006218">Talevski 2006, p. 218.</ref><ref group="nb">When this proved too small he took over Winterland and then the Fillmore West (in San Francisco) and the Fillmore East (in New York City), where the major rock artists, from both the US and the UK, came to play.<ref>N. Talevski, Knocking on Heaven's Door: Rock Obituaries (Omnibus Press, 2006), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 218.</ref></ref>

According to Kevin T. McEneaney, the Grateful Dead "invented" acid rock in front of a crowd of concertgoers in San Jose, California on December 4, 1965, the date of the second Acid Test held by novelist Ken Kesey and The Merry Pranksters. Their stage performance involved the use of strobe lights to reproduce LSD's "surrealistic fragmenting" or "vivid isolating of caught moments".<ref name="FOOTNOTEMcEneaney200945">McEneaney 2009, p. 45.</ref> The Acid Test experiments subsequently launched the entire psychedelic subculture.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMcEneaney200946">McEneaney 2009, p. 46.</ref>

1966: Growth and early popularity

See also: Psychedelic pop

Musicologist William Echard writes that in 1966, "the psychedelic implications" advanced by recent rock experiments "became fully explicit and much more widely distributed," and by the end of the year, "most of the key elements of psychedelic topicality had been at least broached."<ref name="FOOTNOTEEchard2017">Echard 2017.</ref> Author Jim DeRogatis says the birth date of psychedelic (or acid) rock is "best listed at 1966".<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis20039">DeRogatis 2003, p. 9.</ref> Music journalists Pete Prown and Harvey P. Newquist locate the "peak years" of psychedelic rock between 1966 and 1969.<ref name="FOOTNOTEPrownNewquist199748">Prown & Newquist 1997, p. 48.</ref> 1966 saw the media coverage of rock music change considerably as the music became reevaluated as a new form of art in tandem with the growing psychedelic community.<ref name="FOOTNOTEShephardLeonard2013184">Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 184.</ref>

In February, the Yardbirds released "Shapes of Things", which is frequently considered the first psychedelic rock song.<ref name="FOOTNOTEHall2014117">Hall 2014, p. 117.</ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEBennett200576">Bennett 2005, p. 76.</ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEPerone2009136">Perone 2009, p. 136.</ref> Reaching No. 3 in the UK<ref>"Yardbirds – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved August 4, 2017. </ref> and 11 in the US,<ref>Billboard (May 14, 1966). "Hot 100". Billboard. 78 (20): 22. ISSN 0006-2510. </ref> the work continued the Yardbirds' exploration of guitar effects, Eastern-sounding scales,<ref group="nb">Writing in Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties, Beatles' historian Ian MacDonald notes that Paul McCartney's guitar solo on "Taxman" from Revolver "goes far beyond anything in the Indian style Harrison had done on guitar, the probable inspiration being Jeff Beck's ground-breaking solo on the Yardbirds' astonishing 'Shapes of Things'".<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacDonald2007201 fn1">MacDonald 2007, p. 201 fn1.</ref></ref> and shifting rhythms that began with their 1965 singles.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBennett200576">Bennett 2005, p. 76.</ref> By overdubbing guitar parts, Beck layered multiple takes for his solo,<ref name="FOOTNOTESantoro199117">Santoro 1991, p. 17.</ref> which included extensive use of fuzz tone and harmonic feedback.<ref name="FOOTNOTEEchard201736">Echard 2017, p. 36.</ref><ref name="Unterberger"/> The Yardbirds' lyrics, described as "stream-of-consciousness",<ref name="FOOTNOTEUnterberger20021322">Unterberger 2002, p. 1322.</ref> have been interpreted as pro-environmental or anti-war.<ref name="FOOTNOTEPower201183">Power 2011, p. 83.</ref> Another record often considered the first psychedelic rock song is the Byrds' "Eight Miles High" (March 1966).<ref name="FOOTNOTEHanley201537">Hanley 2015, p. 37.</ref><ref name="FOOTNOTESimonelli2013100">Simonelli 2013, p. 100.</ref><ref name="Unterberger">Unterberger, Richie. "The Yardbirds – Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved August 4, 2017. </ref> For their new single, the Byrds moved away from their earlier folk rock with Roger McGuinn's 12-string Rickenbacker guitar interpretation of free jazz (Coltrane) and Indian raga-sounding scales (Shankar).<ref name="FOOTNOTEHanley201539">Hanley 2015, p. 39.</ref> The Byrds' lyrics were widely taken to refer to drug use, although the group denied it at the time.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322–1323">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323.</ref><ref group="nb"></ref> "Eight Miles High" peaked at No. 14 in the US.<ref>Billboard (May 21, 1966). "Hot 100". Billboard. 78 (21): 24. ISSN 0006-2510. </ref> and No. 24 in the UK.<ref>"Byrds – Singles". Official Charts. Retrieved August 4, 2017. </ref> According to author David Simonelli, despite being released a month apart from each other, both songs "achieved the same status" as the first "psychedelic" hit, and the Yardbirds became the first British band to have the term applied to one of its songs.<ref name="FOOTNOTESimonelli2013100">Simonelli 2013, p. 100.</ref>

Contributing to psychedelia's emergence into the pop mainstream was the release of Beach Boys' Pet Sounds (May 1966)<ref name="McPadden2016">McPadden, Mike (May 13, 2016). "The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds and 50 Years of Acid-Pop Copycats". TheKindland. </ref> and the Beatles' Revolver (August 1966).<ref name="AMPop"/> Often considered one of the earliest albums in the canon of psychedelic rock,<ref name="SixDegrees">Maddux, Rachael (May 16, 2011). "Six Degrees of The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds". Wondering Sound. </ref><ref group="nb"></ref> Pet Sounds contained many elements that would be incorporated into psychedelia, with its artful experiments, psychedelic lyrics based on emotional longings and self-doubts, elaborate sound effects and new sounds on both conventional and unconventional instruments.<ref name=AllmusicBritishPsychedelic>R. Unterberger, "British Psychedelic", Allmusic. Retrieved 7 June 2011.</ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis200335–40">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 35–40.</ref> The album track "I Just Wasn't Made for These Times" contained the first use of theremin sounds on a rock record.<ref name="FOOTNOTELambert2007240">Lambert 2007, p. 240.</ref> Scholar Philip Auslander says that even though psychedelic music is not normally associated with the Beach Boys, the "odd directions" and experiments in Pet Sounds "put it all on the map. ... basically that sort of opened the door — not for groups to be formed or to start to make music, but certainly to become as visible as say Jefferson Airplane or somebody like that."<ref name="Longman2016">Longman, Molly (May 20, 2016). "Had LSD Never Been Discovered Over 75 Years Ago, Music History Would Be Entirely Different". Music.mic. </ref> Like Pet Sounds, Revolver explored musical soundscapes that could not be replicated in concert, even with the addition of an orchestra.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis200314">DeRogatis 2003, p. 14.</ref> The Beatles' May 1966 B-side "Rain", recorded during the Revolver sessions, was the first pop recording to include reversed sounds.<ref name="FOOTNOTEReisingLeBlanc200995">Reising & LeBlanc 2009, p. 95.</ref> It makes full use of an assortment of studio tricks such as varispeed and backwards taping, combining them with a droning melody that further highlights a growing interest in non-Western musical form. Author Simon Philo believes the song to be "the birth of British psychedelic rock".<ref name="FOOTNOTEPhilo2014111">Philo 2014, p. 111.</ref> Author Steve Turner recognises the Beatles' success in conveying an LSD-inspired worldview on Revolver, particularly on "Tomorrow Never Knows", as having "opened the doors to psychedelic rock (or acid rock)".<ref>Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York, NY: HarperLuxe. p. 626. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0. </ref>

In October 1966, the Texas band 13th Floor Elevators debuted with The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. They were the first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock, having done so since the end of 1965.<ref name="FOOTNOTEHicks200064–66">Hicks 2000, pp. 64–66.</ref><ref group="nb"></ref> The Beach Boys' October 1966 single "Good Vibrations" was another early pop song to incorporate psychedelic lyrics and sounds.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis200333–39">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 33–39.</ref> Upon release, the single prompted an unexpected revival in theremins and increased the awareness of analog synthesizers.<ref name="FOOTNOTEPinchTrocco2009102–103">Pinch & Trocco 2009, pp. 102–103.</ref> As psychedelia gained prominence, Beach Boys-style harmonies would be ingrained into the newer psychedelic pop.<ref name="AMPop">Anon. "Psychedelic Pop". AllMusic. </ref>

1967–69: Continued development and international variants

1967 was when psychedelic rock received widespread media attention and a larger audience beyond local psychedelic communities.<ref name="FOOTNOTEShephardLeonard2013184">Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 184.</ref> From 1967 to 1968, psychedelic rock was the prevailing sound of rock music, either in the whimsical British variant, or the harder American West Coast acid rock.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBrend200588">Brend 2005, p. 88.</ref> Since most of the US acts had yet to release records in the UK, most of the British groups based their sound on what they'd simply read or heard about psychedelic music.<ref name="FOOTNOTESchinderSchwartz2008437">Schinder & Schwartz 2008, p. 437.</ref><ref group="nb">Before 1967, British media outlets for psychedelic culture were limited to stations like Radio Luxembourg and pirate radio like Radio London, particularly the programmes hosted by DJ John Peel.<ref>Pirate Radio, Ministry of Rock.co.uk. Retrieved 9 February 2010.</ref></ref> Compared with American psychedelia, British psychedelic music was often more arty in its experimentation, and it tended to stick within pop song structures.<ref name=britpsych>British Psychedelia at AllMusic</ref> Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" (March 1967) and "See Emily Play" (June 1967), both written by Syd Barrett, helped set the pattern for British pop-psychedelia.<ref name="FOOTNOTEKittsTolinski20026">Kitts & Tolinski 2002, p. 6.</ref>

A poster for Jefferson Airplane's song "White Rabbit", the lyrics of which describe the surreal world depicted in Alice in Wonderland.

Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow (February 1967) was the first album to come out of San Francisco during this era, which sold well enough to bring the city's music scene to the attention of the record industry: from it they took two of the earliestTemplate:Contradict-inline psychedelic hit singles: "White Rabbit" and "Somebody to Love".<ref>P. Frame, Rock Family Trees (London: Omnibus Press, 1980), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 9.</ref> That same month, the Beatles released the double A-side "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", which Ian MacDonald says opened a strain of "British pop-pastoral" music explored by late 1960s groups like Pink Floyd, Traffic, Family, and Fairport Convention.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacDonald1998216">MacDonald 1998, p. 216.</ref> Soon, British clubs like the UFO Club, Middle Earth Club, The Roundhouse, the Country Club and the Art Lab were drawing capacity audiences with psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows.<ref>C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960s (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., pp. 83–4.</ref> A major figure in the development of British psychedelia was the American promoter and record producer Joe Boyd, who moved to London in 1966. He co-founded venues including the UFO Club, produced Pink Floyd's first single, "Arnold Layne", and went on to manage folk and folk rock acts including Nick Drake, the Incredible String Band and Fairport Convention.<ref>R. Unterberger, "Nick Drake: biography", Allmusic. Retrieved 7 May 2011.</ref><ref name="Sweers2005p86">B. Sweers, Electric Folk: The Changing Face of English Traditional Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 86.</ref>

Psychedelic rock's popularity accelerated following the success of the Monterey Pop Festival and the release of the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in the same week of June.<ref name="FOOTNOTEShephardLeonard2013184">Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 184.</ref> The album was the first commercially successful work that critics heralded as a landmark aspect of psychedelia, and the Beatles' mass appeal meant that the album would be played virtually everywhere.<ref name="FOOTNOTEShephardLeonard2013186">Shephard & Leonard 2013, p. 186.</ref> The Summer of Love of 1967 saw a huge number of young people from across America and the world travel to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, boosting the population from 15,000 to around 100,000.<ref>G. Falk and U. A. Falk, Youth Culture and the Generation Gap (New York, NY: Algora, 2005), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 186.</ref> It was prefaced by the Human Be-In event in March and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, the latter helping to make major American stars of Janis Joplin, lead singer of Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jimi Hendrix, and the Who.<ref>W. E. Studwell and D. F. Lonergan, The Classic Rock and Roll Reader: Rock Music from its Beginnings to the mid-1970s (London: Routledge, 1999), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 223.</ref> Existing "British Invasion" acts now joined the psychedelic revolution, including Eric Burdon (previously of The Animals) and The Who, whose The Who Sell Out (December 1967) included psychedelic influenced tracks "I Can See for Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky".<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine2002pp. 29, 1027, 1220">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. pp. 29, 1027, 1220.</ref> The Incredible String Band's The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion (July 1967) developed their folk music into full blown psychedelia, which would be a major influence on psychedelic rock.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis2003120">DeRogatis 2003, p. 120.</ref>

According to author Edward Macan, there ultimately existed three distinct wings of British psychedelic music.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacan199719">Macan 1997, p. 19.</ref> The first was based on a heavy, electric reinterpretation of the blues played by the Rolling Stones, adding guitarist Pete Townshend of the Who's pioneering power chord style to the mix. Groups of this nature were dominated by Cream, the Yardbirds, and Hendrix. <ref name="FOOTNOTEMacan199719">Macan 1997, p. 19.</ref> The second drew strongly from jazz sources and was represented early on by Traffic, Colosseum, If, and the Canterbury scene spearheaded by Soft Machine and Caravan. Their music was considerably more complex than the Cream/Hendrix/Yardbirds approach.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacan199720">Macan 1997, p. 20.</ref> The third wing was represented by the Moody Blues, Pink Floyd, and the Nice, who were influenced by the later music of the Beatles, unlike the other two wings.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacan199720">Macan 1997, p. 20.</ref> Several of the English psychedelic bands who followed in the wake of the Beatles' psychedelic Sgt. Pepper's developed characteristics of the Beatles' music (specifically their classical influence) further than either the Beatles or contemporaneous West Coast psychedelic bands.<ref name="FOOTNOTEMacan199721">Macan 1997, p. 21.</ref>

The US and UK were the major centres of psychedelic music, but in the late 1960s scenes began to develop across the world, including continental Europe, Australasia, Asia and south and Central America.<ref>S. Borthwick and R. Moy, Popular Music Genres: an Introduction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 44.</ref> In the later 1960s psychedelic scenes developed in a large number of countries in continental Europe, including the Netherlands with bands like The Outsiders,<ref>R. Unterberger, Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-fi Mavericks & More (Miller Freeman, 1998), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 411.</ref> Denmark where it was pioneered by Steppeulvene,<ref>P. Houe and S. H. Rossel, Images of America in Scandinavia (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 77.</ref> and Germany, where musicians began to fuse music of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. 1968 saw the first major German rock festival in Essen,<ref>P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock, (Rough Guides , 1999), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p.26</ref> and the foundation of the Zodiak Free Arts Lab in Berlin by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and Conrad Schnitzler, which helped bands like Tangerine Dream and Amon Düül achieve cult status.<ref>P. Stump, Digital Gothic: a Critical Discography of Tangerine Dream (Wembley, Middlesex: SAF, 1997), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 33.</ref> A thriving psychedelic music scene in Cambodia, influenced by psychedelic rock and soul broadcast by US forces radio in Vietnam,<ref>M. Wood, "Dengue Fever: Multiclti Angelanos craft border-bluring grooves" Spin, January 2008, p. 46.</ref> was pioneered by artists such as Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea.<ref>R. Unterberger, "Various Artists: Cambodian Rocks Vol. 1: review", Allmusic retrieved 1 April 2012.</ref> In South Korea, Shin Jung-Hyeon, often considered the godfather of Korean rock, played psychedelic-influenced music for the American soldiers stationed in the country. Following Shin Jung-Hyeon, the band San Ul Lim (Mountain Echo) often combined psychedelic rock with a more folk sound.<ref>"KOREAN PSYCH & ACID FOLK, part 1". Progressive.homestead.com. Retrieved 2013-02-03. </ref> In Turkey, Anatolian rock artist Erkin Koray blended classic Turkish music and Middle Eastern themes into his psychedelic-driven rock, helping to found the Turkish rock scene with artists such as Cem Karaca, Mogollar and Baris Manco.<ref>V. Karaege, Erkin Koray Allmusic. Retrieved 1 April 2012.</ref> In Brasil the Tropicalia movement merged Brazilian and African rhythms with psychedelic rock. Musicians who were part of the movement include Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Os Mutantes, Gal Costa, Tom Zé, and the poet/lyricist Torquato Neto, all of whom participated in the 1968 album Tropicália: ou Panis et Circencis, which served as a musical manifesto.

1969–71: Decline

The stage at the Woodstock Festival in 1969

Psychedelic trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, and the Grateful Dead.<ref>A. Bennett, Remembering Woodstock (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..</ref> By the end of the 1960s, psychedelic rock was in retreat. In 1966, LSD had been made illegal in the US and UK.<ref>I. Inglis, The Beatles, Popular Music and Society: a Thousand Voices (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 46.</ref> In 1969, the murders of Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca by Charles Manson and his cult of followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' songs such as "Helter Skelter", has been seen as contributing to an anti-hippie backlash.<ref>D. A. Nielsen, Horrible Workers: Max Stirner, Arthur Rimbaud, Robert Johnson, and the Charles Manson Circle: Studies in Moral Experience and Cultural Expression (Lanham MD: Lexington Books, 2005), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 84.</ref> At the end of the same year, the Altamont Free Concert in California, headlined by the Rolling Stones, became notorious for the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunter by Hells Angel security guards.<ref>J. Wiener, Come Together: John Lennon in his Time (Chicago IL: University of Illinois Press, 1991), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., pp. 124–6.</ref>

Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys,<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis200333–39">DeRogatis 2003, pp. 33–39.</ref> Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd were early "acid casualties", helping to shift the focus of the respective bands of which they had been leading figures.<ref>"Garage rock", Billboard, 29 July 2006, 118 (30), p. 11.</ref> Some groups, such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream, broke up.<ref>D. Gomery, Media in America: the Wilson Quarterly Reader (Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2nd edn., 1998), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., pp. 181–2.</ref> Hendrix died in London in September 1970, shortly after recording Band of Gypsys (1970), Janis Joplin died of a heroin overdose in October 1970 and they were closely followed by Jim Morrison of the Doors, who died in Paris in July 1971.<ref>S. Whiteley, Too Much Too Young: Popular Music, Age and Gender (London: Routledge, 2005), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 147.</ref> Many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock", traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-based heavy rock.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021322–1323">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1322–1323.</ref>

Revivals and successors

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Soul and funk

Following the lead of Hendrix in rock, psychedelia began to influence African American musicians, particularly the stars of the Motown label.<ref name=AllmusicPsychedelicSoul>"Psychedelic soul", Allmusic. Retrieved 27 June 2010.</ref> This psychedelic soul was influenced by the civil rights movement, giving it a darker and more political edge than much psychedelic rock.<ref name=AllmusicPsychedelicSoul/> Building on the funk sound of James Brown, it was pioneered from about 1968 by Sly and the Family Stone and The Temptations. Acts that followed them into this territory included Edwin Starr and the Undisputed Truth.<ref name=AllmusicPsychedelicSoul/>Template:Verification needed George Clinton's interdependent Funkadelic and Parliament ensembles and their various spin-offs took the genre to its most extreme lengths making funk almost a religion in the 1970s,<ref>J. S. Harrington, Sonic Cool: the Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., pp. 249–50.</ref> producing over forty singles, including three in the US top ten, and three platinum albums.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine2002226">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 226.</ref>

While psychedelic rock began to waver at the end of the 1960s, psychedelic soul continued into the 1970s, peaking in popularity in the early years of the decade, and only disappearing in the late 1970s as tastes began to change.<ref name=AllmusicPsychedelicSoul/> Acts like Earth, Wind and Fire, Kool and the Gang and Ohio Players, who began as psychedelic soul artists, incorporated its sounds into funk music and eventually the disco which partly replaced it.<ref name=Bennet1993>A. Bennett, Rock and Popular Music: Politics, Policies, Institutions (Abingdon: Routledge, 1993), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 239.</ref>

Prog, heavy metal, and krautrock

Many of the British musicians and bands that had embraced psychedelia went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, including Pink Floyd, Soft Machine and members of Yes. King Crimson's album In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) has been seen as an important link between psychedelia and progressive rock.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis2003169">DeRogatis 2003, p. 169.</ref> While bands such as Hawkwind maintained an explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s, most dropped the psychedelic elements in favour of wider experimentation.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine2002515">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 515.</ref> The incorporation of jazz into the music of bands like Soft Machine and Can also contributed to the development of the jazz rock of bands like Colosseum.<ref>A. Blake, The Land Without Music: Music, Culture and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., pp. 154–5.</ref> As they moved away from their psychedelic roots and placed increasing emphasis on electronic experimentation, German bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust developed a distinctive brand of electronic rock, known as kosmische musik, or in the British press as "Kraut rock".<ref>P. Bussy, Kraftwerk: Man, Machine and Music (London: SAF, 3rd end., 2004), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., pp. 15–17.</ref> The adoption of electronic synthesisers, pioneered by Popol Vuh from 1970, together with the work of figures like Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBogdanovWoodstraErlewine20021330–1331">Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, pp. 1330–1331.</ref>

Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound, extended solos and adventurous compositions, has been seen as an important bridge between blues-oriented rock and later heavy metal. American bands whose loud, repetitive psychedelic rock emerged as early heavy metal included the Amboy Dukes and Steppenwolf.<ref name="FOOTNOTEBrowneBrowne20018">Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8.</ref> From England, two former guitarists with the Yardbirds, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page, moved on to form key acts in the genre, The Jeff Beck Group and Led Zeppelin respectively.<ref name=Cook2001>B. A. Cook, Europe Since 1945: an Encyclopedia, Volume 2 (London: Taylor & Francis, 2001), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 1324.</ref> Other major pioneers of the genre had begun as blues-based psychedelic bands, including Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Judas Priest and UFO.<ref name=Cook2001/><ref name="FOOTNOTEDeRogatis2003212">DeRogatis 2003, p. 212.</ref> Psychedelic music also contributed to the origins of glam rock, with Marc Bolan changing his psychedelic folk duo into rock band T. Rex and becoming the first glam rock star from 1970.<ref>P. Auslander, Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 196.</ref>Template:Verification needed From 1971 David Bowie moved on from his early psychedelic work to develop his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act.<ref name=Auslander2006p72>P. Auslander, "Watch that man David Bowie: Hammersmith Odeon, London, July 3, 1973" in I. Inglis, ed., Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 72.</ref>

Neo-psychedelia and stoner rock

There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, a style of music which emerged in late 1970s post-punk circles. Although it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie rock bands, neo-psychedelia sometimes updated the approach of 1960s psychedelic rock.<ref name=AllMusicNeoP/> In the US in the early 1980s it was joined by the Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles and fronted by acts such as Dream Syndicate, The Bangles and Rain Parade.<ref>R. Unterberger, S. Hicks and J. Dempsey, Music USA: the Rough Guide (London: Rough Guides, 1999), Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"., p. 401.</ref> Emerging in the 1990s, stoner rock combined elements of psychedelic rock and doom metal. Typically using a slow-to-mid tempo and featuring low-tuned guitars in a bass-heavy sound,<ref>G. Sharpe-Young, "Kyuss biography", MusicMight. Retrieved 10 December 2007.</ref> with melodic vocals, and 'retro' production,<ref name="allmusicStonerMetal">"Stoner Metal", Allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2009.</ref> it was pioneered by the Californian bands Kyuss<ref>E. Rivadavia "Kyuss", Allmusic. Retrieved 10 December 2007.</ref> and Sleep.<ref name="allmusic sleep">E. Rivadavia, "Sleep", Allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2009.</ref> Modern festivals focusing on psychedelic music include Austin Psych Fest in Texas, founded in 2008<ref>E. Gossett, "Austin Psych Fest announces 2014 lineup", Paste, 4 December 2013, retrieved 7 December 2013.</ref> and Liverpool Psych Fest.<ref>"Liverpool Psych Fest", NME, 30 September 2013, retrieved 7 December 2013.</ref>

See also

Notes

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References

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Bibliography

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