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|Cultural origins||1960s and early 1970s, Southern United States|
|Southern United States|
Southern rock is a subgenre of rock music and a genre of Americana. It developed in the Southern United States from rock and roll, country music, and blues, and is focused generally on electric guitar and vocals. Although the origin of the term Southern rock is unknown, "many people feel that these important contributors to the development of rock and roll have been minimized in rock's history."<ref>Brant, Marley. Southern Rockers: the roots and legacy of Southern rock. New York: Billboard Books, 1999, p. 22</ref>
The Allman Brothers Band played Southern rock with long jams. The Marshall Tucker Band was also known to incorporate jazz instruments such as the flute and saxophone into their jams. Loosely associated with the first wave of Southern rock were acts like Barefoot Jerry and Charlie Daniels. In the early 1970s, another wave of hard rock Southern groups emerged. Their music emphasized boogie rhythms and fast guitar leads with lyrics extolling the values, aspirations - and excesses - of Southern working-class young adults, not unlike the outlaw country movement. The music itself is heavily influenced by the late 60s electric rock music scene.
The 1990s also saw the influence of Southern rock touching metal. Additionally, alternative rock groups like Kings of Leon combine Southern rock with garage rock, alt-country, and blues rock. Several of the original early 1970s hard rock Southern rock groups are still performing today, such as Lynyrd Skynyrd, The Marshall Tucker Band, ZZ Top, and Canned Heat.
1950s and 1960s: origins
Rock music's origins lie mostly in the music of the American South, and many stars from the first wave of 1950s rock and roll such as Bo Diddley, Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, Fats Domino, and Jerry Lee Lewis hailed from the Deep South. However, the British Invasion and the rise of folk rock and psychedelic rock in the middle 1960s shifted the focus of new rock music away from the rural south and to large cities like Liverpool, London, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco. In the early 1960s, blues-rock founding father Lonnie Mack seamlessly blended a number of black and white roots-music genres within the framework of rock. Music historian Dick Shurman considers Mack's recordings from that era "a prototype of what later could be called Southern rock".<ref>"Dick Shurman, as quoted in McCardle, Washington Post, "Lonnie Mack, guitarist and singer who influenced blues and rock acts, dies at 74"". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 31 August 2017.</ref> In the late 1960s, Blues rock bands such as Canned Heat (from Los Angeles), Creedence Clearwater Revival (from El Cerrito, California), and the Band (Canadian, though drummer Levon Helm was a native of Arkansas) were under the influence of Southern blues, boogie and country music.
1970s: peak of popularity
The Allman Brothers Band, based in Macon, Georgia, made their national debut in 1969 and soon gained a loyal following. Their blues rock sound on one hand incorporated long jams informed by jazz and classical music, and on the other hand drew from native elements of country and folk. They were also contemporary in their electric guitar and keyboard delivery. <ref name="history">Template:Cite video</ref> Gregg Allman commented that "Southern rock" was a redundant term, like "rock rock."<ref name="history"/> The Marshall Tucker Band, from Roebuck, South Carolina opened many of The Allman Brothers Band concerts and were creatively on par with The Allman Brothers Band, using elements of jazz, soul, Appalachian folk and psychedelia in their music.
Loosely associated with the first wave of Southern rock were acts like Barefoot Jerry and Charlie Daniels from North Carolina. Charlie Daniels, a big-bearded fiddler with a knack for novelty songs, gave Southern rock its self-identifying anthem with his 1975 hit "The South's Gonna Do It", the lyrics of which mentioned all of the above bands, proclaiming: "Be proud you're a rebel/'Cause the South's gonna do it again." A year earlier, Daniels had started the Volunteer Jam, an annual Southern rock-themed concert held in Tennessee. The Marshall Tucker Band from Spartanburg, South Carolina with hits like "Can't You See" and "Heard it in a Love Song" incorporated the flute into their music. The Outlaws from Tampa, Florida brought bluegrass licks into play that was the trademark for the Florida Guitar Army. Duane Allman's playing on the two Hour Glass albums and an Hour Glass session in early 1968 at FAME Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama had caught the ear of Rick Hall, owner of FAME. In November 1968, Hall hired Allman to play on an album with Wilson Pickett. Allman's work on that album, Hey Jude (1968), got him hired as a full-time session musician at Muscle Shoals and brought him to the attention of a number of other musicians, such as Eric Clapton, who later said, "I remember hearing Wilson Pickett's 'Hey Jude' and just being astounded by the lead break at the end. I had to know who that was immediately—right now." Allman's performance on "Hey Jude" blew away Atlantic Records producer and executive Jerry Wexler when Hall played it over the phone for him. Wexler immediately bought Allman's recording contract from Hall and wanted to use him on sessions with all sorts of Atlantic R&B artists.
As Allman's distinctive electric bottleneck steel sound began to mature, it evolved in time into the musical voice of what would come to be known as Southern Rock, being picked up and redefined in their own styles by slide guitarists that included bandmate Dickey Betts (after Allman's death), Rory Gallagher, Derek Trucks and Gary Rossington of Lynyrd Skynyrd.
In the early 1970s, another wave of hard rock Southern groups emerged, heavily influenced by the British rock guitar sound: notably, the sound of Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, exemplified by his riff on "Can't You Hear Me Knocking," and Free guitarist Paul Kossoff's power chords and solo on "All Right Now," and (perhaps especially) guitarist Robin Trower's classic riff on Procol Harum's "Whiskey Train". The harder rocking Southern groups' music emphasized boogie rhythms and fast guitar leads with lyrics extolling the values, aspirations - and excesses - of Southern working-class young adults, not unlike the outlaw country movement. Lynyrd Skynyrd of Jacksonville, Florida dominated this genre until the deaths of lead singer Ronnie Van Zant and two other members of the group in a 1977 airplane crash. After this tragic plane crash, members Allen Collins and Gary Rossington started the Rossington Collins Band.
Not all Southern rock artists fit into the above molds. The Atlanta Rhythm Section and the Amazing Rhythm Aces were more focused on vocal harmonies, and Louisiana's Le Roux ranged from Cajun-flavored Southern boogie early on to a more arena rock sound later on, while the Dixie Dregs and Allman Brothers' offshoot Sea Level explored jazz fusion.
1980s and 1990s: continuing influence
By the beginning of the 1980s Southern rock icons the Allman Brothers and Lynyrd Skynyrd had broken up, Capricorn Records was bankrupt, and Carter was out of office. As with most all of rock, leading acts of the genre (In particular 38 Special.) had become thoroughly enmeshed in corporate arena rock. With the rise of MTV, new wave, R&B and glam metal, most surviving Southern rock groups were relegated to secondary or regional venues. Bands such as Molly Hatchet, Outlaws, Georgia Satellites, Drivin N Cryin, Confederate Railroad, Dash Rip Rock, and Kentucky Headhunters emerged as popular Southern bands across the Southeastern United States during the 1980s and 1990s.
During the 1990s, the Allman Brothers reunited and became a strong touring and recording presence again, and the jam band scene revived interest in extended improvised music. Incarnations of Lynyrd Skynyrd also made themselves heard. Hard rock groups with Southern rock touches such as Jackyl renewed some interest in Southern rock.
The 1990s also saw the influence of Southern rock touching metal. Several bands from the Southern United States (particularly New Orleans with its metal scene)<ref name="allmusic-doometal">"Doom metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-22.</ref> such as Eyehategod,<ref name="AMG-Dopesick">York, William. "Eyehategod - Dopesick". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref><ref name="AMG-IntheNameofSuffering">York, William. "Eyehategod - In the Name of Suffering". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref><ref name="AMG-TakeasNeededforPain">York, William. "Eyehategod - Take as Needed for Pain". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref> Acid Bath, Soilent Green, Corrosion of Conformity<ref name="AMG-CoC">Huey, Steve. "Corrosion of Conformity". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref> and Down,<ref name="AMG-Down">Prato, Greg. "Down". AllMusic. Retrieved 2008-07-21.</ref><ref name="AMG-NOLA">Reamer, David. "Down-NOLA". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref> influenced by the Melvins, mixed Black Sabbath-style metal, hardcore punk and Southern rock to give shape to what would be known as sludge metal.<ref name="AMG-Eyehategod">Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref><ref name="AMG-AcidBath">York, William. "Acid Bath". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref><ref name="AMG-SoilentGreen">York, William. "Soilent Green". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref> Most notable sludge metal bands hail from the Southeastern United States.<ref name="AMG-Crowbar">Huey, Steve. "Crowbar". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref><ref name="AMG-Buzzov-en">York, William. "Buzzov-en". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-07-20.</ref> Most bands who have tried this style have slipped out of mainstream popularity, but there are still a few who belong to the genre, such as Maylene and the Sons of Disaster, Pumpjack, Black Label Society and occasionally Hellyeah.
2000 to present
In 2001, Kid Rock went from a hard metal rapper to a southern rocker/country singer using 2001's album Cocky as the transformation album. His next two studio releases 2003's Kid Rock and 2007's Rock N Roll Jesus were mainly straight southern rock jams and country-tinged ballads. His 2008 single "All Summer Long" (which samples "Sweet Home Alabama" and "Werewolves of London") became one of his biggest hits to date without it being available on iTunes. The Allman Brother's Dickey Betts joined Kid Rock as part of his Rock N Roll Revival Tour in 2008 and Lynyrd Skynyrd opened for him. In 2009, they relaunched the tour under the same name. In 2010 he released "Born Free" a straight southern rock album without any rap or metal on it. He has remained planted in southern rock since with Rebel Soul (2012) and First Kiss (2015).
In 2005, singer Bo Bice took an explicitly Southern rock sensibility and appearance to a runner-up finish on the normally pop-oriented American Idol television program, with a performance of the Allmans' "Whipping Post" and later performing Skynyrd's "Free Bird" and, with Skynyrd on stage with him, "Sweet Home Alabama".
Southern rock currently plays on the radio in the United States, but mostly on oldies stations and classic rock stations. Although this class of music gets minor radio play, there is still a following for older bands like Lynyrd Skynyrd and the Allman Brothers play in venues with sizable crowds.<ref>White, Dave. "Southern Rock 101". About.com. 2010. New York Times. Retrieved 2 March 2010.</ref>
Post-grunge bands such as Shinedown, Saving Abel, Pre)Thing, [], Saliva, 3 Doors Down, 12 Stones, Default, Black Stone Cherry and Theory of a Deadman have included a Southern rock feel to their songs and have recorded cover versions of Southern rock classics like "Simple Man" and "Tuesday's Gone". Metallica has also covered "Tuesday's Gone" on their Garage Inc. album. Blues rock/stoner rock band Five Horse Johnson also have a southern rock influence in their sound.
Additionally, alternative rock groups such as Drive-By Truckers, the Bottle Rockets, Black Crowes, Band of Horses, My Morning Jacket, Hester, State Line Mob, the Steepwater Band, Greasy Grapes and Kings of Leon combine Southern rock with rawer genres, such as garage rock, alt-country, and blues rock. Much of the old style Southern rock (as well as other classic rock) has made its transition into the country music genre, establishing itself along the lines of outlaw country in recent years. Southern rock influence can also be seen in the metal and hardcore punk genres.<ref>"Every Time I Die Signs with Epitaph Records". Epitaph.com. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2012.</ref> This is showcased by such bands as Maylene and the Sons of Disaster, Rebel Meets Rebel, He Is Legend, Nashville Pussy, the Showdown, Alabama Thunderpussy, Every Time I Die, Cancer Bats, Clutch, Once Nothing, Memphis May Fire, Acid Bath, Down, and Of Mice & Men.
Several of the original early 1970s hard rock Southern rock groups are still performing in 2011. This list includes Atlanta Rhythm Section (ARS), Marshall Tucker, Molly Hatchet, Outlaws, Gregg Allman, Allman Brothers Band, Lynyrd Skynyrd, ZZ Top, Canned Heat, Black Oak Arkansas, Blackfoot, .38 Special and Dickey Betts. New groups such as Dixie Witch, Blackberry Smoke, Gator Country, Widespread Panic, the Black Crowes, Gov't Mule, Southern Rock Allstars and the Derek Trucks Band are continuing the Southern rock art form.
A number of books in the 2000s have chronicled Southern rock's history, including Randy Poe's Skydog - The Duane Allman Story, Gene Odom's Lynyrd Skynyrd: Remembering the Free Birds of Southern Rock and Rolling Stone writer Mark Kemp's Dixie Lullaby: A Story of Music, Race & New Beginnings in a New South. More recentlyTemplate:When Turn It Up was released by Ron Eckerman, Lynyrd Skynyrd's former manager and plane crash survivor. Sociologist Jason T. Eastman analyzes contemporary southern rock to illustrate changes in today's southern identity in his book The Southern Rock Revival: The Old South in a New World.<ref>"The-Southern-Rock-Revival-The-Old-South-in-a-New-World". Rowman.com. Retrieved 31 August 2017.</ref>
Newer bands like the Deadstring Brothers, Fifth on the Floor and Whitey Morgan and the 78's combine the Southern rock sound with country, bluegrass and blues. This has been propelled by record labels like Bloodshot Records and Lost Highway Records.<ref>Record label info, Mlive.coml; accessed August 6, 2014.</ref>
- Country rock
- Heartland rock
- Roots rock
- Swamp rock
- Tulsa Sound
- List of southern rock bands
- Southern Rock Gold
- The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll, Random House, 1980. "Southern Rock" entry by Joe Nick Patoski; Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..
- Kemp, Mark. Dixie Lullaby: A Story of Music, Race and New Beginnings in a New South, New York, New York: Free Press/Simon & Schuster, 2004, p. 17; Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn"..
- Pure Southern Rock website; accessed August 6, 2014.