The Miracles

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The Miracles
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The Miracles in the early 1960s. From left to right: Smokey Robinson, Claudette Robinson, Ronald White, Pete Moore, and Bobby Rogers. Not pictured: Marv Tarplin
Background information
Also known as The Five Chimes, The Matadors, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles
Origin Detroit, Michigan, United States
Genres R&B, doo-wop, rock 'n' roll, soul, funk, disco
Years active 1955–1978; 1980–1983; 1993–2011
Labels End
Chess
Motown
Tamla
Columbia
Past members Ronald "Ronnie" White
Warren "Pete" Moore
William "Smokey" Robinson
Clarence Dawson
James Grice
Emerson "Sonny" Rogers
Robert "Bobby" Rogers
Claudette Rogers Robinson
Marvin "Marv" Tarplin
William "Billy" Griffin
Donald "Don" Griffin
Carl Cotton
David "Dave" Finley
Sydney Justin
Tee Turner
Mark Scott

The Miracles (also known as Smokey Robinson and the Miracles from 1965 to 1972) were an American rhythm and blues vocal group that was the first successful recording act for Berry Gordy's Motown Records, and one of the most important and influential groups in pop, rock and roll, and R&B music history.<ref>"Smokey Robinson & the Miracles | Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"Smokey Robinson & The Miracles Full Biography". Mp3lyrics.org. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"The.100.Most.influential.musicians.of.All.time". Scribd.com. August 27, 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> Formed in 1955 by Smokey Robinson, Warren "Pete" Moore, and Ronnie White, the group started off as the Five Chimes, changing their name to the Matadors two years later. The group then settled on the Miracles after the inclusion of Claudette Robinson in 1958. The most notable Miracles line-up included the Robinsons, Moore, White, Bobby Rogers and Marv Tarplin. After a failed audition with Brunswick Records, the group began working with songwriter Berry Gordy, who helped to produce their first records for the End and Chess labels before establishing Tamla Records in 1959 and signing the Miracles as its first act. The group eventually scored the label's first million-selling hit record with the 1960 Grammy Hall of Fame smash, "Shop Around", and further established themselves as one of Motown's top acts with the hit singles "You've Really Got a Hold on Me", "What's So Good About Goodbye", "Way Over There", "I'll Try Something New", "Mickey's Monkey", "Going to a Go-Go", "(Come 'Round Here) I'm the One You Need", "Just A Mirage", "If You Can Want", "More Love", "I Don't Blame You at All", "Ooo Baby Baby", "The Tracks of My Tears", "Special Occasion", "I Second That Emotion", "Baby Baby Don't Cry", the number-one Pop smashes "The Tears of a Clown" and "Love Machine", "Do It Baby", and "My Girl Has Gone",among numerous other hits.

Referred to as Motown's "soul supergroup",<ref>"Rebound in Motown – Hitsville USA | National Society of Newspaper Columnists". Columnists.com. Retrieved 2012-12-18. </ref> the Miracles recorded 26 Top 40 Pop hits, sixteen of which reached the Billboard Top 20, seven top 10 singles, and a number one single ("The Tears of a Clown") while the Robinsons and Tarplin were members. Following the departure of Tarplin and the Robinsons, the rest of the group continued with singer Billy Griffin and scored two final top 20 singles, "Do It Baby" and "Love Machine", a second # 1 hit, which topped the charts before the group departed for Columbia Records in 1977, recording as a quintet with Billy's brother Donald Griffin replacing Marv Tarplin, where after a few releases, they disbanded in 1978. In all, the group had over fifty charted hits by the time they disbanded.<ref name="motownmuseum.org">"The Miracles – Motown Sounds Featured Artist – Motown Museum Home of Hitsville U.S.A". Motownmuseum.org. February 19, 1958. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> On the R&B charts, the Miracles scored 26 Top 10 Billboard R&B hits, with 4 R&B # 1's, and 11 U.S. R&B Top 10 Albums, including 2-#1's . Bobby Rogers and Ronald White revived the group as a touring ensemble sporadically during the 1980s and again in the 1990s with lead singer Sydney Justin. Following White's death in 1995, Rogers continued to tour with different members until he was forced into retirement due to health issues in 2011, dying less than two years later.

The Miracles have been awarded many top music industry honors over the years. In 1997, the group received the Pioneer Award at the Rhythm and Blues Foundation for their musical achievements.<ref name=RhythmNBlues>"Rhythm & Blues Foundation – Preserving America's Soul". Rhythm-n-blues.org. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref> Four years later, in 2001, they were inducted to the Vocal Group Hall of Fame.<ref name=VocalGroup>"Smokey Robinson and The Miracles – Inductees – The Vocal Group Hall of Fame Foundation". Vocalgroup.org. Retrieved 2012-04-16. [permanent dead link]</ref> In 2004, they were ranked thirty-two on the Rolling Stone magazine's list of The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, retaining that same position seven years later, in 2011.<ref name=immortals>"The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone Issue 946. </ref> Four of their hit songs were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 2009, the group received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Throughout their careers, the Miracles were also enshrined with honors for their songwriting by both BMI and ASCAP.<ref name="gbelv1">"WBMM Pete Moore Awards". Gbelv.com. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEEbonyOctober 1971169">Ebony October 1971, pp. 169.</ref> In 2008, Billboard listed them at #61 on their 100 most successful Billboard artists ever list.<ref>"Billboard Hot 100 Chart 50th Anniversary". Billboard.com. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref> After much controversy, the Miracles were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012.<ref name="halloffame2012">"Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Adds Six Backing Groups to the Class of 2012". Retrieved 2012-03-25. </ref>

History

Initial career and success

File:Themiracles-early60s.jpg
The Miracles in 1962, clockwise from top left: Bobby Rogers, Marv Tarplin, Ronald White, Claudette Robinson, and Smokey Robinson – Pete Moore had been drafted into the Army at the time this photo was taken.

The group that later became the Miracles was formed in 1955 by five teenage friends from Detroit, Michigan, under the name the Five Chimes.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011124">Dahl 2011, pp. 124.</ref> Three of the founding members, Smokey Robinson, Pete Moore and Ronald White had been singing together since they each were around the age of eleven.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011124">Dahl 2011, pp. 124.</ref> The group, influenced by acts such as Billy Ward and His Dominoes and Nolan Strong & the Diablos, featured Clarence Dawson and James Grice in the original lineup.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011124">Dahl 2011, pp. 124.</ref> All 'FIVE CHIMES'original members attended Northern High School in Detroit.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011124">Dahl 2011, pp. 124.</ref> After Dawson quit the group and Grice dropped out to get married, they were replaced by Emerson "Sonny" Rogers and his cousin Bobby and changed their name to the Matadors.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011125">Dahl 2011, pp. 125.</ref> Ironically, both Smokey Robinson and Bobby Rogers were born in the same hospital on the same month, date and year, despite not actually meeting each other until they were fifteen.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011124">Dahl 2011, pp. 124.</ref><ref>"The Miracles of Motown_Bobby Rogers: We've Got Smokey". YouTube. December 2, 2010. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> In 1957, Sonny Rogers left to join the United States Army and Claudette Rogers, his sister, who had been singing with the sister group the Matadorettes, joined them shortly afterwards.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011125">Dahl 2011, pp. 125.</ref> Following two years of courtship, Smokey and Claudette married in November 1959.

The group auditioned for Brunswick Records in front of Alonzo Tucker (an original member of the Midnighters who had since left the group to join Jackie Wilson's management team),<ref>"Marv Goldberg's R&B Notebooks – The Royals". Uncamarvy.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"Hank Ballard & The Midnighters helped to shape rock and roll". Goldminemag.com. August 23, 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> Nat Tarnopol (Jackie Wilson's manager) and one of the label's staff songwriters, Berry Gordy, who remained quiet during the audition.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011127">Dahl 2011, pp. 127.</ref> Tucker was unimpressed by the audition, stating that because there was the Platters that "there couldn't be two groups in America like that with a woman in the group."<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011127">Dahl 2011, pp. 127.</ref> After the Tarnopol and Tucker rejection, Gordy followed them and soon agreed to work with the group after discovering Robinson's notebook full of songs he had written and having been impressed with Robinson's singing voice.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011127">Dahl 2011, pp. 127.</ref><ref name=pc25>Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 25 – The Soul Reformation: Phase two, the Motown story. [Part 4, : UNT Digital Library" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref>

Gordy recorded their first single, "Got a Job", an answer song to the Silhouettes' "Get a Job" in January 1958.<ref name=pc25/><ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011125">Dahl 2011, pp. 125.</ref> Gordy shortly thereafter struck a deal with George Goldner's End Records to distribute the single.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011125">Dahl 2011, pp. 125.</ref> Before the song was released, the group changed their name to the Miracles, taking it from the moniker "Miracletones", with the "'Tones" taken out.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011125">Dahl 2011, pp. 125.</ref> After earning only $3.19 for his production success, Gordy was told by Robinson to form his own label, which Gordy did, forming Tamla Records in 1959.<ref name=pc25/><ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011124–127">Dahl 2011, pp. 124–127.</ref> One of the Miracles' first Tamla singles, the ballad "Bad Girl", became the Miracles' first song to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 Pop chart that October when it was licensed to and issued nationally by Chess Records.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011127">Dahl 2011, pp. 127.</ref> The next Miracles song, "It", was credited to "Ron & Bill", in a duet between White and Robinson, and was released on Tamla and nationally picked by Chess subsidiary Argo Records.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011128">Dahl 2011, pp. 128.</ref> Following a dismal reception at the Apollo Theater in 1959, Robinson recruited guitarist Marv Tarplin to join them on a few touring dates after Tarplin played with the Primettes (later the Supremes), with Tarplin officially joining the Miracles shortly afterwards.<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011128">Dahl 2011, pp. 128.</ref> The addition of Tarplin was the final element in making the Miracles' "classic lineup" complete.<ref>The Supremes: A Saga of Motown Dreams, Success, and Betrayal-Page 65</ref>

In 1960, the Miracles reached the charts with "Way Over There", their second national hit, which Robinson wrote and based on the Isley Brothers' "Shout".<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011128">Dahl 2011, pp. 128.</ref> Later that year, the Miracles released "Shop Around", backed with "Who's Lovin' You", which became the group's first smash hit, reaching number one on the R&B charts, number two on the Billboard Hot 100, and number one on the Cash Box Magazine "Top 100" Pop Chart, and was the first Motown single to sell a million copies. Both sides of this record became standards for R&B and rock musicians alike for several decades afterwards.

As a result of this success, the Miracles became the first Motown act to appear on Dick Clark's "American Bandstand" on December 27, 1960.<ref>"American Bandstand Timeline – Dick Clark – History, Biography and Trivia". Oldies.about.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> The Miracles had modest success with their next few singles, including "Ain't It Baby", "Mighty Good Lovin'", "Brokenhearted" and "Everybody's Gotta Pay Some Dues", as 1961 continued. During this early period, the group suffered some problems as Robinson caught Asian Flu and had to be bedded for a month,<ref name="FOOTNOTEGulla2008256">Gulla 2008, pp. 256.</ref> leaving wife Claudette Robinson to lead the Miracles on tour until he recovered. Claudette herself had her share of problems, having suffered her first miscarriage that occurred after a car accident and Pete Moore was drafted to serve in the United States Army.<ref name="FOOTNOTEGulla2008256">Gulla 2008, pp. 256.</ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011129">Dahl 2011, pp. 129.</ref> The group's next charted successes included "What's So Good About Goodbye", and the string-laden "I'll Try Something New".<ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011130">Dahl 2011, pp. 130.</ref>

"The Showstoppers"

The group reached the top ten again with "You've Really Got a Hold on Me"(another Grammy Hall of Fame-inducted hit) in 1962, featuring lead vocals by Smokey Robinson and Bobby Rogers. The Miracles hit the top ten still a third time the following year with the Holland-Dozier-Holland-written-and-produced song "Mickey's Monkey". The group's exciting live performances were so well received, they were often referred to as "The Showstoppers".<ref name=miraclesstar>"The Miracles – Hollywood Star Walk". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 25, 2012. </ref> The Miracles' success paved the way for all future Motown stars, and, as Motown's first group, they would serve as the prototype for all other Motown groups to follow. The Miracles had become a national sensation, and their success catapulted them to the position of Motown's top-selling act, making them headliners at the nationwide Motortown Revue package touring shows, which showcased Motown artists, and that started around late 1962.

The Miracles were also the first Motown act to receive coaching and instruction from famed choreographer Cholly Atkins, who had previously worked with Little Anthony & the Imperials, the Cadillacs, and future Motown act Gladys Knight & the Pips. (Bobby Rogers, the Miracles' best dancer, did choreography for the group prior to Atkins' arrival).<ref>"Bobby Rogers, co-founder of Motown group the Miracles, dies 73". Hollywoodmemoir.com. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref><ref>Perrone, Pierre (March 6, 2013). "Bobby Rogers: Singer and songwriter with Smokey Robinson and the Miracles – Obituaries". The Independent. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref> Through his association with the Miracles, Atkins came into Motown at their insistence, and soon became the official in-house choreographer for all of the company's acts, including the Temptations, the Marvelettes, the Four Tops, the Contours, Martha & the Vandellas, and the Supremes.<ref>"American Dance Legends – Charles "Cholly" Atkins". TheatreDance.com. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref><ref>Motown: The Golden Years, p.132</ref>

Songwriters...not just singers

In addition to penning their own material, Miracles Robinson, White, Rogers, Tarplin, and Moore wrote for many of their labelmates as well. Motown hits written, but not recorded, by members of the Miracles include songs for the Temptations ("The Way You Do The Things You Do", "My Girl", "Don't Look Back", "Since I Lost My Baby", "It's Growing", "Get Ready", "My Baby"), Mary Wells ("My Guy", "The One Who Really Loves You", "What Love Has Joined Together", "Two Lovers"), Marvin Gaye ("I'll Be Doggone", "Ain't That Peculiar", "One More Heartache"), the Marvelettes ("Don't Mess With Bill", "My Baby Must Be a Magician", "The Hunter Gets Captured by the Game"), The Contours ("First I Look at the Purse), and Brenda Holloway ("When I'm Gone"). Unlike other Motown artists, whose songs were written for them by staff songwriters, the Miracles were one of the few Motown acts that composed their own songs, adding to the group's already impressive reputation.<ref>"The African American Experience". Testaae.greenwood.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2012-07-28. </ref>

Around 1964, Smokey Robinson became Motown's vice president, while the other members of the Miracles also began to work staff jobs with the company. Smokey and Claudette Robinson made plans to begin a family, but the rough life of touring caused Claudette to have several miscarriages. In early 1964, Claudette decided to retire from the road and remain at home in Detroit after another miscarriage, her sixth. From this point on, Claudette did not tour with the Miracles or appear in any official group photographs or on television, although she remained as a non-touring member of the Miracles , and continued to sing backup with the group in the studio until 1972. <ref name="FOOTNOTEDahl2011132">Dahl 2011, pp. 132.</ref><ref name="FOOTNOTEEbonyOctober 1971165">Ebony October 1971, pp. 165.</ref>

After Claudette Robinson's departure, the remaining Miracles appeared on The T.A.M.I. Show, a landmark 1964 concert film released by American International Pictures<ref>"The T.A.M.I. Show". December 29, 1964 – via IMDb. </ref> that included performances by numerous popular rock and roll and R&B musicians from the United States and England, filmed and recorded live at the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium on October 28 and 29, 1964.<ref>"The T.A.M.I. Show Collector's Edition: The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boys, James Brown and The Flames, Chuck Berry, Marvin Gaye, Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, the Supremes, Lesley Gore, Jan and Dean, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas, and the Barbarians. Steve Binder: Movies & TV". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> This film had theatrical release in theatres across the United States, and also included performances by fellow Motown artists the Supremes and Marvin Gaye, along with Chuck Berry, Lesley Gore, the Beach Boys, the Rolling Stones, and James Brown and the Famous Flames. The Miracles' performance was one of the show's highlights, called "athletically electrifying" by critics.<ref>"iTunes – Music – Smokey Robinson". Itunes.apple.com. February 19, 1940. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref>Unterberger, Richie (February 19, 1940). "Smokey Robinson". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref>"Smokey Robinson Miracles Diana Ross Supremes From Rock Concert TAMI". YouTube. September 4, 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref> Miracles chart hit singles that year included "That's What Love Is Made Of" and "I Like It Like That". In early 1965, the group released Motown Records' first double album, The Miracles Greatest Hits from the Beginning, which was a success on Billboard's Pop and R&B Album Charts. Also in 1965, the Miracles released their landmark Top 10 album, Going to a Go-Go, under the new group name of Smokey Robinson and the Miracles. This album launched four top 20 singles on the Billboard Hot 100, including the landmark million-selling Grammy Hall of Fame single, "The Tracks of My Tears", "Ooo Baby Baby", "Going to a Go-Go" and "My Girl Has Gone", all of which became top ten R&B hit singles as well. During this period, their music had made its way abroad, influencing several British groups along the way.<ref>"Smokey Robinson and the Miracles". Edsullivan.com. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref name="hold on me">""You Really Got A Hold on Me" by The Beatles. The in-depth story behind the songs of the Beatles. Recording History. Songwriting History". Beatlesebooks.com. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref> The effects of this influence became even more pronounced when the Beatles, the Hollies, the Zombies, the Who, and the Rolling Stones all began recording covers of Miracles hits. Members of the Beatles, in particular, publicly stated that the music of the Miracles had greatly influenced their own.<ref name="hold on me" />

Around this time, the group had begun performing in nightclubs and other high-profile venues after years on the chitlin' circuit. According to an Ebony article on the group, the group began grossing $150,000 a year due to royalties and personal investments.<ref name="FOOTNOTEEbonyOctober 1971166">Ebony October 1971, pp. 166.</ref> They also were making between $100,000 and $250,000 for nightly shows.<ref name="FOOTNOTEEbonyOctober 1971166">Ebony October 1971, pp. 166.</ref> In addition, the Miracles appeared on many of the popular variety television programs of the period, including The Ed Sullivan Show, Shindig!, Hullabaloo, American Bandstand, Where The Action Is, The Mike Douglas Show, The Andy Williams Show,Teen Town,Hollywood A Go-Go, Upbeat, and Britain's Ready Steady Go!. The Miracles' success continued with several hits including "(Come 'Round Here) I'm the One You Need", "More Love", "Special Occasion", "If You Can Want", and the Top 10 hit "I Second That Emotion". Around this time, the group was starting to be billed as Smokey Robinson and the Miracles on several of their albums. The name change did not appear on their singles until the release of "The Love I Saw in You Was Just a Mirage", a Top 20 hit released in 1967. On that song's flipside was the tune "Come Spy with Me". The Miracles sang the original theme to the 1967 20th Century Fox film of the same name.<ref>"Probabilistic Jukebox: "Come Spy With Me" by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles". WiresandWaves.com. January 20, 2010. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref>"Smokey Robinson & The Miracles – Come Spy With Me". YouTube. December 2, 2009. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref>"smokey robinson and the miracles- come spy with me- get smart; the avengers; undercovers". YouTube. April 11, 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref>

The year 1968 brought a second "greatest hits" collection, The Miracles Greatest Hits, Vol. 2, which was the group's second Top 10 album, which featured the most popular singles from their successful Going to a Go-Go, Away We A Go-Go and Make It Happen albums of the 1965–67 period. Also in 1968, the group released their hit album Special Occasion which spawned 3 Top 40 singles, including the smash "If You Can Want", which the group performed on their first appearance on CBS' The Ed Sullivan Show, at the time considered television's top talent and entertainment showcase.

The Miracles performing on The Smokey Robinson Show, a 1970 ABC Television special. (L-to-R) Bobby Rogers, Smokey Robinson, Ronnie White.(Pete Moore was sidelined with a leg injury)

However, due to constant changes in the music industry and Motown, by 1969, Smokey Robinson sought to leave the Miracles and the stage, to settle for continued work as Motown's vice president as well as become more of a family man to his wife Claudette and their children. The year 1969 had brought a second Ed Sullivan Show appearance for the group, singing their then-current singles "Doggone Right", and their hit cover of Dion's "Abraham, Martin and John".<ref>"The Ed Sullivan Show – Season 21, Episode 32: June 1, 1969: Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, Lesley Gore, Gwen Verdon". TV.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> Robinson's departure plans however, were thwarted after the group's 1969 song "Baby Baby Don't Cry" hit the Billboard Pop Top 10, and when the Miracles' 1967 song, "The Tears of a Clown", was released as a single in 1970, it became a number-one hit in the UK. It was subsequently released in the U.S., where it duplicated its U.K. success, reaching number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 Pop Chart and selling over 3 million copies.<ref>"Miracles (Smokey Robinson &)". Michigan Rock and Roll Legends. September 30, 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> As a result, the Miracles became hotter than ever, and Robinson decided to stay with the group for another two years. In 1970, the group were given their own ABC television special, The Smokey Robinson Show, which starred the Miracles, with guest stars the Supremes, the Temptations, Stevie Wonder, and Fran Jeffries.<ref>"The Smokey Robinson Show Dvd Very Rare Koop". Ioffer.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>The Smokey Robinson Show (1970) (TV) at the Internet Movie Database</ref><ref>DiscoNights1987 (January 2, 2015). "The Smokey Robinson Show (Full Program)" – via YouTube. </ref> In 1971, they scored one more top 20 hit with 1971's "I Don't Blame You At All".<ref>"Watch American Bandstand S14E45 Online | Smokey Robinson and the Miracles". SideReel. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref> In 1972, Robinson made good on his promise to leave the Miracles, starting a six-month tour which ended in July 1972 at Washington, D.C., later introducing Billy Griffin as his official replacement. This series of final live Miracles concerts with Robinson was released by Motown on the double album Smokey Robinson & The Miracles: 1957–1972 (Tamla TS320). About that final tour, Miracle Pete Moore stated: "We had 12 farewell engagements playing to sold-out houses. It was amazing."<ref>Sangiacomo, Michael (April 3, 2012). "The Miracles: In the '60s, we loved and lost to this Motown legend's smooth songs (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Class of 2012)". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2014-04-19. </ref> Also released that year was the group's final studio album with Smokey, Flying High Together, with its lead single "We've Come Too Far to End It Now" reaching the Billboard R&B Top Ten. After Smokey's retirement, Billy Griffin was introduced to national television audiences on NBC's The Midnight Special, on an episode guest-starring the Miracles and hosted by Smokey Robinson, broadcast on July 13, 1973.<ref>"Watch The Midnight Special S1E25 Online | Host: Smokey Robinson | TV Shows". SideReel.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"The Midnight Special – Host: Smokey Robinson (S01E25)". Seplis.com. July 13, 1973. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> Within a year afterwards, Marv Tarplin also decided to leave the group and continued working with Robinson on his solo material, while Claudette, who had essentially retired from the Miracles' live performances in 1964, permanently left the Miracles when her husband Smokey did, retiring from recording with them as well.

Later career

In 1973, the Miracles, with Griffin, re-emerged with the critically acclaimed album, Renaissance – their first without Smokey Robinson on lead vocals, which included the Marvin Gaye composition, "I Love You Secretly", "What Is a Heart Good For" (the intended first single),<ref>https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYtUwd7GXA8</ref><ref>"★Soul Train #307 – THE MIRACLES "What Is A Heart Good For" 1974". YouTube. June 10, 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> and the charting single,"Don't Let It End (Til You Let It Begin)". The following year, in 1974, after releasing the much-covered single "Give Me Just Another Day", the group had their first top 20 hit in three years with the million-selling funk song, "Do It Baby".<ref>The Book of Golden Discs – by Joseph Murrells, pgs 348 & 361</ref><ref>"The Miracles – Do It Baby (Audio Redone By Dj Cole 1974)". YouTube. August 10, 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> This was followed by the top 10 R&B hit, "Don't-Cha Love It."<ref>"The Miracles | Music Biography, Credits and Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> Late that following year, the group recorded the disco smash, "Love Machine", which came off their self-written-and-produced hit album, City of Angels. "Love Machine" reached number-one on the Hot 100 in early 1976, the Miracles' first since "Tears of a Clown", and later sold over 4.5 million copies.<ref name="miraclescleveland">Plain Dealer File. "The Miracles: In the '60s, we loved and lost to this Motown legend's smooth songs (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Class of 2012)". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2012-07-28. </ref> The Miracles, who had long been written off by the music industry, had proven that they could have big hits without Robinson. Despite this success,however, in 1976, the Miracles' relationship with Motown imploded during contract renewals after their contract with the label had expired.<ref name="FOOTNOTERyan201188">Ryan 2011, p. 88.</ref> When Motown, then going through a contract issue with Stevie Wonder, advised the group to wait "six months" to discuss a new contract, the group took on an offer to sign with Columbia Records, signing with them in 1977.<ref name="FOOTNOTERyan201188">Ryan 2011, p. 88.</ref> Following this, Billy's brother Donald joined them on lead guitar, replacing Marv Tarplin. The group immediately had problems after signing with Columbia, starting with the release of their first Columbia single, "Spy For Brotherhood". Expecting controversy from the single as well as possible threats from the FBI, Columbia pulled the song from the airwaves.<ref>"Miracles – Love Machine: The 70'S Collection CD Album". Cduniverse.com. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref><ref>"Smokey Robinson and the Miracles – Biography for These Soulful Singing Phenoms". Soullyoldies.com. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref> The group failed to have a hit during their short Columbia run and in 1978, Pete Moore decided to retire from the road while Billy Griffin wanted to return to his solo career, leading to the group to disband. {sfn|Ryan|2011|p=88}}

In 1980, Ronnie White and Bobby Rogers decided to carry on with the Miracles as a touring unit replacing Pete Moore and Billy Griffin with Dave Finley and Carl Cotton, which carried on for three years as "The New Miracles".<ref name="FOOTNOTERyan201188">Ryan 2011, p. 88.</ref><ref name="FindaG CCotton">"Carl Cotton (1955 – 2003)". Findagrave.com. Find A Grave Memorial. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref> This version of the Miracles was short-lived though after White decided to retire from show business following the death of his wife Earlyn, who died from breast cancer in 1983, disbanding the group again. Around this same time, most of the original Miracles including Smokey Robinson and Claudette Robinson as well as Pete Moore, Marv Tarplin, and Bobby Rogers reunited to perform a medley of their songs on the 1983 NBC television special, Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever. Ron White was attending his wife Earlyn's funeral around this time, and did not participate in the reunion. Following his exit from the Miracles, Smokey Robinson enjoyed a successful solo career; in 1979, he and Tarplin co-wrote his signature hit, "Cruisin'". Following his reunion with the original Miracles on Motown 25, Robinson became dependent on cocaine, which affected his life and career. He broke the addiction in the late 1980s and revived his singing career, with the Grammy-winning Top 10 hit single, "Just to See Her".<ref>Just to See Her</ref>Template:Better source<ref>http://www.awardsandshows.com/features/grammy-awards-1988-236.html</ref><ref>http://bestsongsever.com/smokey-robinson/just-to-see-her</ref> In 1986, Smokey's marriage with Claudette Robinson ended in divorce while Bobby's marriage to Marvelettes member Wanda Young ended in 1975. After the release of a 35th anniversary commemorative compilation album in 1993, Ronnie White and Bobby Rogers decided to regroup the Miracles yet again, with Dave Finley returning to the fold and Sydney Justin, former NFL player and formerly of Shalamar, as the lead singer. Two years later, Ronnie White died from a longtime bout with leukemia, leaving the remaining Miracles as a trio until Tee Turner joined the group in 2001. In 1998 the group including Sydney, Bobby, Claudette and Pete performed on the PBS television network. Following White's death in 1995, Rogers continued to tour with different members. In 2005 the Miracles added a new lead singer, Mark Scott, who led the group in another PBS appearance and toured around the world. In 2009, the group received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame with Bobby Rogers, Berry Gordy, Smokey Robinson, Stevie Wonder, Pete Moore, Claudette Robinson, and Billy Griffin in attendance.<ref>"Blog Archive " Honors on the Hollywood Walk of Fame". The Scoop LA. May 7, 2010. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref><ref>HipHollywood (March 20, 2009). "Smokey Robinson & The Miracles Get A Star! - HipHollywood.com" – via YouTube. </ref> In 2011, Rogers was forced into retirement due to health issues, dying less than two years later.<ref name="miraclescleveland" /> Bobby Rogers died in March 2013, 2 weeks after his 73rd birthday. Former members Carl Cotton, Marv Tarplin and Donald Griffin are also deceased (in 2003, 2011, and 2015 respectively).<ref name="FindaG CCotton" /><ref>"Miracles guitarist Marv Tarplin dies at 70". BBC.com. October 5, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2015. </ref><ref>Rizik, Chris. "R.I.P. former Miracles singer and guitarist Don Griffin". SoulTracks.com. Retrieved September 15, 2015. </ref><ref>Paul, Jesse. "Don Griffin, Killed by Vehicle on I-25, Was Guitarist in Miracles, Anita Baker". The Denver Post. Retrieved September 15, 2015. </ref>

Accolades, Hollywood Walk of Fame, and 2012 induction

During their tenure, the Miracles were awarded several times for their songwriting work from both the BMI and ASCAP songwriting and licensing organizations.<ref name="gbelv1" /><ref name="FOOTNOTEEbonyOctober 1971169">Ebony October 1971, pp. 169.</ref> In 1997, the Miracles were honored by the Rhythm and Blues Foundation with the Pioneer Award for their contributions to music.<ref name=RhythmNBlues /> In 2001, the group was inducted to the Vocal Group Hall of Fame.<ref name="VocalGroup" /> Three years later, the Miracles were included in Rolling Stone's list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time at #32, still holding to that position in a revised 2011 edition, making the Miracles the highest-ranking Motown group on the Rolling Stone listing. In both editions, they were immortalized by rock musician Bob Seger, who grew up a Miracles fan.<ref name="immortals" /> In 2006, Woodbridge Estates, an exclusive residential development in Detroit, named their community park "Miracles Park" and one of its streets "Miracles Boulevard", in recognition of the legendary Motown group's importance to the city, and as a tribute to their many accomplishments in the music industry.<ref name="gbelv1" /><ref>"Woodbridge Estates Honors Motown Legends; Developer Holds Street Naming and Ground Breaking Celebration. – PR Newswire, HighBeam Research: Online Press Releases". Encyclopedia.com. April 6, 2002. Retrieved May 24, 2011. </ref>

In 2009, all the known members of the group (including Billy Griffin) got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, attended by Berry Gordy and Stevie Wonder, who thanked the Miracles (in particular Ronnie White, who had brought the then 11-year-old to Motown's studios), for discovering him.<ref>"Honors on the Hollywood Walk of Fame". Retrieved 2012-03-25. </ref> Wonder stated: "Were it not for the Miracles, there would not be a Stevie Wonder".<ref>"Smokey Robinson & The Miracles Get A Star! - HipHollywood.com". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> Gordy added that without the Miracles, "Motown would not be the Motown that it is today."<ref>"New stars on Hollywood Walk of Fame". Cleveland.com. Retrieved May 24, 2011. </ref><ref>"Rush, The Miracles Getting Walk of Fame Stars". Buffaloathome.com. Retrieved May 24, 2011. </ref> In 2011, the Miracles were inducted to the Doo-Wop Hall of Fame.<ref>"at". Doowophof.com. April 5, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref> That same year, Goldmine magazine named them as one of the twenty greatest doo-wop groups of all time.<ref>"Goldmine's 20 Greatest Doo-Wop Groups". Retrieved 2012-03-26. </ref> Finally, in 2012, 25 years after frontman Smokey Robinson's controversial solo induction, the rest of the original Miracles were inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, with Robinson inducting them along with five other groups.<ref name="halloffame2012" /> The group's induction meant that they would be retroactively included with Robinson under the premise that they should have been inducted with him back in 1987. The inducted members were original members Claudette Rogers-Robinson, Pete Moore, Bobby Rogers, Ronnie White (posthumously), and Marv Tarplin (posthumously).<ref>"Belated Hall of Fame Induction for Smokey Robinson's Miracles". Retrieved 2012-03-26. </ref><ref>"Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Announces More Inductees". Retrieved 2012-03-26. </ref> On October 4, 2015 the Miracles were inducted into the Official Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame in Detroit, MI.

Legacy

The Miracles and their music have had worldwide impact, influencing scores of artists of many different musical genres around the globe. The original lineup of the group has consistently been revered by several critics in major rock and music magazines and have received numerous honors and awards for their contributions to the music industry. One of their most honored songs, "The Tracks of My Tears", was included in the United States Library of Congress' National Recording Registry because of its "culturally, historically and aesthetically significance" in 2008. It was also chosen as one of the Top 10 Best Songs of All Time by a panel of 20 top industry songwriters and producers including Hal David, Paul McCartney, Brian Wilson, Jerry Leiber, and others as reported to Britain's Mojo music magazine,<ref>"Mojo – the 100 greatest songs of all time (august 2000)". Muzieklijstjes.nl. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref><ref>"TOP 10 tag: Rock". WatchMojo.com. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref> and was also winner of "The Award of Merit" from The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) for the song's writers, Miracles members Pete Moore, Marv Tarplin and Smokey Robinson.<ref name="gbelv1" /> In addition, "The Tracks of My Tears" has been ranked by the Recording Industry Association of America and The National Endowment for the Arts at #127 in its list of the Songs of the Century – the 365 Greatest Songs of the 20th Century.<ref>"Songs of the Century List". Mylistpad.com. January 31, 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref>Whitaker, Dave (March 7, 2012). "Dave's Music Database: The RIAA/NEA's Top 365 Songs of the 20th Century". Davesmusicdatabase.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref> Their hit-filled 1965 album, Going to a Go-Go is listed on Rolling Stone Magazine's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time".<ref>"500 Greatest Albums: Going to a Go-Go – Smokey Robinson and the Miracles". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref> Four of the group's songs were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame including "You Really Got a Hold on Me", "Tears of a Clown", "Shop Around" and "Tracks of My Tears". In addition, "You Really Got a Hold on Me", "Going to a Go-Go", "Shop Around" and "Tracks of My Tears" were inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame as part of their list of The 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll .<ref>"Experience the Music: One-Hit Wonders and the Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame & Museum. Retrieved September 20, 2012. </ref> The group was also ranked #61 on VH-1's 100 Greatest Rock Stars of All Time in 1998 while also ranking at #71 on Billboard's 100 Greatest Artists of All Time in 2008.They have also been inducted into the Hit Parade Hall of Fame as of 2014.<ref>"Inductees". Hit Parade Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"Smokey Robinson & the Miracles". Hit Parade Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref> and the R&B Music Hall of Fame in 2015.

Commenting to Rolling Stone Magazine, Bob Seger said: "I used to go to the Motown Revues, and the Miracles always closed the show. They were that good, and everybody knew it."<ref name="immortals" /> Producer Quincy Jones called the group the "Beethovens of The 20th Century" due to their songwriting talents.<ref>Smokey Robinson and the Miracles: The Definitive Performances (1963–1987)</ref> In addition, the Miracles have been regarded as the most covered act in Motown's roster and have influenced numerous artists worldwide in the last 50 years.<ref>"Motown Legends Today : Tamla Motown News". Funandmusic.biz. Retrieved May 24, 2011. </ref><ref>"GONNNA TAKE SOME MIRACLES The Miracles on Blurt Online". Blurt-online.com. August 28, 2009. Retrieved May 24, 2011. [permanent dead link]</ref>

The success of the Miracles actually launched the Motown Records label, and, according to Motown Records founder, Berry Gordy, without the Miracles,the Motown Record Corporation would not have been possible.<ref name="motownmuseum.org"/>

The 1987 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame controversy

In 1987, former Miracles lead singer Smokey Robinson was inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist, without his fellow Miracles, which Robinson expressed deep regret and shock that his group-mates weren't inducted with him.<ref>"Rock and Roll Hall of Fame adds six backing groups to the class of 2012". CNN.com. February 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref><ref>"Rock & Roll Hall of Fame still missing 3 Motown stalwarts". Goldmine Magazine. December 15, 2010. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref><ref>Grow, Kory (October 30, 2009). "Bruce! Sam! Billy! Bonnie! Live From The Ludicrously Star-Studded MSG Rock Hall Extravaganza". The Village Voice. Retrieved May 4, 2011. </ref> This solo induction triggered shockwaves and cries of protest throughout the music industry.<ref name="goldminemag.com">"Rock & Roll Hall of Fame still missing 3 Motown stalwarts". Goldminemag.com. December 15, 2010. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"Smokey Robinson: Miracles get inducted into Rock Hall – 13 WTHR Indianapolis". Wthr.com. April 16, 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>"The Miracles: In the '60s, we loved and lost to this Motown legend's smooth songs (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Class of 2012)". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. </ref><ref>Andy Greene (February 9, 2012). "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Adds Six Backing Groups to the Class of 2012 | Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-04-19. </ref> In an article in the oldies music magazine Goldmine, editor Phil Marder stated: "How did Smokey Robinson get inducted without (the rest of) the Miracles?"

"Robinson certainly deserves solo induction due to his songwriting, producing, solo career and his contributions in many official capacities in Motown’s front office. But if the Supremes got in with Diana Ross and the Vandellas made it in with Martha Reeves and the three other Tops made it in with Levi Stubbs, how could the Miracles, who were much more important, not get in with Smokey?"<ref name="goldminemag.com"/>

Miracles bass singer Pete Moore told the Cleveland Plain Dealer, "It was a slap in the face, very disappointing. We are the premier group of Motown. We were there before there was a Motown. We set the pace for all the other artists to come after us. We were a little older, and the other artists looked up to us. How could we not be in there?" Moore later stated, "When Terry Stewart [Rock Hall president and CEO] called and told me we were to be inducted, he was apologetic," Moore said. "He said it should have been done years ago, everybody knew it. He said they received many, many calls over the years from angry (Miracles) fans."<ref name="miraclescleveland" />

Robinson had told Billboard that he had been lobbying for the Miracles since his own induction, "making calls and signing petitions and everything, because they really deserve it." Though some felt Robinson should've been included as an inductee with the other Miracles, Robinson said, "I don't really even care about that. I'm already in there. I don't understand why it was, like, a task to get the Miracles in there. We were one of the hottest and most prolific groups in the world at that time, so I don't understand the hesitancy."<ref name="billboard.com">"The Miracles Grateful of Effort to Get Them into Rock Hall of Fame". Billboard.com. September 14, 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-28. </ref> Claudette Robinson stated, "When I spoke to (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame & Museum President and CEO) Terry Stewart, he said he got no less than 900 e-mails per day saying the Miracles should be inducted, and why aren't they? I was surprised by that. I would think five or 10, but he said that amount, so it's a lot of people that were really pulling for us. You have to be thankful and grateful for that."<ref name="billboard.com"/> However, before this decision, Miracle Marv Tarplin died in September 2011 at the age of 70, just months before the induction ceremony.<ref>"Marv Tarplin, Miracles Guitarist, Dies at 70". Billboard.com. September 14, 2009. Retrieved 2012-04-16. </ref>

In 2015 the Miracles were inducted into The Official Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame in Detroit, MI.<ref>"2015 Induction Ceremony & Concert– DETROIT". rhythmandblueshof.com. The Official Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame Museum. August 28, 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref> On their website it is stated that the Miracles' exclusion from the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was "outrageous", pointing out Robinson's solo induction went against its own rules. Robinson had only spent 14 years as a solo performer and his name wasn't in front of the group's until 1967. It further stated the Miracles were "the heartbeat of Motown in the 1960s, one of the best vocal groups ever formed and owners of some of the greatest records Rock has ever produced."<ref>"The Miracles". Rbhalloffame.com. The Official R&B Music Hall of Fame Museum. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref> It was also stated that with the Miracles' induction, the Hall of Fame "remedied its most shameful chapter and the biggest miracle is it took this long to do it."

In May 2016, The National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences paid tribute to the Miracles with a special year-long career retrospective of the group at The Grammy Museum in Los Angeles entitled : "Legends of Motown: Celebrating the Miracles" highlighting their groundbraking history and accomplishments as Motown's first recording artists, with appearances by original Miracles Claudette Rogers-Robinson and Pete Moore. The Miracles are four-time Grammy Hall of Fame Inductees. At this special showing,as an expression of her gratitude, Ms Robinson stated:

"It is my honor to be recognized by the GRAMMY Museum's Legends of Motown series. I am very grateful that the GRAMMY Museum has provided a platform for fans to experience the history of the Miracles and include items from my private collection to be displayed. The Miracles along with Mr. Berry Gordy and Motown have become a part of musical history that changed the landscape of popular music, soul and R&B to foster positive and progressive race relations in America and around the world. Thank you for the amazing opportunity." <ref>Museum, GRAMMY. "Legends of Motown: Celebrating The Miracles - GRAMMY Museum". </ref><ref>Museum, GRAMMY. "A Conversation With Claudette Robinson - GRAMMY Museum". </ref><ref>"The Miracles: Grammy Museum Unveils Next Motown Exhibit". </ref><ref>"A Conversation With Claudette Robinson In Conjunction With The Opening Of Legends Of Motown: Celebrating The Miracles Photos and Images - Getty Images". </ref>

In a tribute to Motown's first group, Martha Reeves of Martha and the Vandellas stated: "In Liverpool they have a statue of the Beatles. Someplace in Detroit there should be a statue of (Smokey Robinson and) the Miracles." <ref>Workman, Chuck. "Smokey Robinson at Walker Theatre, Nov. 8 | Jazz + Blues". Indianapolis: Nuvo.net. Retrieved 2015-08-18. </ref>

Cover versions and Influence

Awards and achievements

Members

Original members:

Discography

The Miracles

Smokey Robinson & the Miracles

References

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Further reading

External links

Template:2012 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

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